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Zacharie Cloutier

Zacharie Cloutier

French colonist
Zacharie Cloutier
The basics

Quick Facts

Intro French colonist
Was Carpenter
From France
Gender male
Birth December 1590, Mortagne-au-Perche
Death 17 September 1677, Château-Richer (aged 86 years)
The details

Biography

Zacharie Cloutier (c. 1590 – September 17, 1677) was a French carpenter who, in 1634, immigrated to New France in the first wave of the Percheron Immigration from the former province of Perche, to an area that, today, is part of Quebec, Canada. He settled in Beauport and founded one of the foremost families of Quebec.

Early life

Many sources state that Zacharie Cloutier was born about 1590 in the parish of Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Mortagne-au-Perche, France. Cloutier was one of several children of Denis Cloutier and his first wife Renée Brière.

The notary Mathurin Roussel of Mortagne called Cloutier the "family peacemaker," describing how Cloutier helped his father and brother solve a dispute involving inheritance. In the parish of his birth, Cloutier wedded Xainte (aka Sainte) Dupont, on July 18, 1616. Xainte had been born around 1595 in Mortagne to Paul-Michel and Perrine Dupont, and was the widow of Michel Lermusier.

In 1619 Henri II de Montmorency purchased the New France colony from his brother-in-law Henry II of Bourbon. Included amongst the laborers hired to assist Samuel de Champlain in “inhabiting, clearing, cultivating and planting” New France were the names of Zacharie and his father Denis. This group was not a group of settlers, but a group of laborers, who would return to France once their work had been completed. Several years later, however, Cloutier returned to Canada to help establish a new settlement at Beauport.

Life in New France

Cloutier was one of the first Frenchmen recruited by Robert Giffard de Moncel to expand the colony of New France by settling the Beauport area near Quebec City. Cloutier arrived in 1634 (at the age of about 44) and either arrived with or was soon followed by his family. This was an important addition to the colony's population which numbered about 100 prior to his arrival. Cloutier worked with fellow immigrant Jean Guyon du Buisson to construct Giffard's manor house (the oldest house in Canada) and other colonial buildings.

Cloutier and Guyon resisted for several years paying the fealty and homage owed to Giffard under the Seigneurial system of New France until the Governor of New France explicitly ordered them to do so. This was one of the first disputes against transplanting Old World hierarchy to the New World that would carry through the centuries even past the time of the British conquest.

In 1652 Cloutier received a grant of land from Governor Jean de Lauzon in Château-Richer, Quebec. The land on which Cloutier lived in Beauport was known as La Clouterie (or La Cloutièrerie). In 1670 Nicolas Dupont de Neuville purchased this land from Cloutier. This action resulted in disagreements between Cloutier, his neighbor, Jean Guyon, and Giffard, his Seigneur, resulting in the Cloutier family's relocation to Château-Richer.

Zacharie Cloutier died on September 17, 1677 at the age of about 87. His wife died three years later on July 13, 1680 and was buried with her husband in Château-Richer.

Children

Together Zacharie and Xainte had six children, one of whom died in childhood. The marriage of his daughter Anne to Robert Drouin is the oldest recorded marriage in Canada. In 1636 when her marriage contract was drawn, Anne was merely ten years of age. The religious sacrament of marriage was not performed until a year later on July 12, 1637. However, according to the contract drawn the year prior, the couple would only be allowed non-conjugal visits for the next two years.

Name Birth Death Notes
Zacharie August 16, 1617 February 3, 1708 Married Madeleine Emard on April 4, 1648 in La Rochelle.
Jean May 13, 1620 October 16, 1690 Married (1) Jeanne Duval, evidently prior to 1634 in France.
Married (2) Marie Martin on January 21, 1648 in Quebec.
Xainte (aka Sainte) November 1, 1622 September 19, 1632 Died at nearly 10 yrs old in France.
Anne January 19, 1626 February 3, 1648 Married Robert Drouin (officially) on July 12, 1637 in Quebec.
Charles May 3, 1629 June 5, 1709 Married Louise Morin on April 20, 1659 in Quebec.
Marie-Louise March 18, 1632 June 22, 1699 Married (1) François Marguerie on October 26, 1645 in Quebec.
Married (2) Jean Migneault dit Châtillon on November 10, 1648 in Quebec.
Married (3) Jean Matthieu on February 3, 1684 in Quebec.

Notable descendants

Zacharie Cloutier is the common ancestor of the Cloutiers of North America, some with spelling variations. By 1800, Cloutier had 10,850 French-Canadian descendants, the most of any Quebec colonist, according to marriage records studied by the Historical Demography Research Program of the Université de Montréal.

Cloutier is a common ancestor of:

  • Marcheline Bertrand
  • Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
  • Madonna Ciccone
  • Alexandre Cloutier
  • Dan Cloutier
  • Gary Cloutier
  • Gilles Cloutier
  • Guy Cloutier
  • Guylaine Cloutier
  • Jacques Cloutier
  • Réal Cloutier
  • Suzanne Cloutier
  • T. J. Cloutier
  • Véronique Cloutier
  • Laura de Jonge
  • Celine Dion
  • The Dionne quintuplets
  • George R. D. Goulet
  • Robert Goulet
  • Camille Henry
  • Angelina Jolie
  • Jack Kerouac
  • Beyoncé Knowles
  • Solange Knowles
  • Avril Lavigne
  • Lynda Lemay
  • Alanis Morissette
  • Wade Morissette
  • Prime Minister Louis St Laurent
  • Diane Tell
  • Shania Twain

Ancestry

Little is known about the Cloutier ancestors. Most genealogists agree that Zacharie Cloutier was the grandson of Nicolas Cloutier of Perche. The most common variation of the surname is Cloustier. Most sources state the surname was originally given to a person who crafted and sold nails, coming from the Latin word "clavus" meaning nail ("clou" in French). Some descendants of Cloutier who immigrated to the United States from Canada changed their surnames to Nailer in this respect.

Honours

In 1972, a house originally built and lived in by Cloutier was reconstructed and named a provincial heritage site.

In 1984, a monument was erected in Beauport (which has since been merged into Quebec City as of 2002) to commemorate the 350th anniversary of Cloutier's arrival.

The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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