Umar Arteh Ghalib or Omer Carte Qalib (Somali: Cumar Carte Qaalib, Arabic: عمر عرتي غالب) (born 1930) is a prominent Somali politician. He was Prime Minister of the Somali Democratic Republic from January 24, 1991 to May 1993. previously he served as Foreign Minister from 1969 to 1977. He is belonged to the United Somali Congress.
Early life and education
Ghalib was born in British Somaliland in 1930. He is a member of the Habr Awal Isaaq clan, and belonged to the United Somali Congress. He underwent elementary and intermediate education in Hargeisa and completed his secondary education in Sheikh, and his higher education in England where he was educated at Bristol University in the UK.
He started his career as a school master and then headmaster of elementary schools of Las Anod, Berbera and Hargeisa respectively. Just before he went to UK in 1956, he was appointed as vice principal of Sheikh Intermediate School. After his success in Sheikh, he went to England for higher Education. On his return in 1958 he was promoted as the first principal of Gabiley Intermediate Boarding School.
Minister of Foreign Affairs
From 1969 to 1977, Ghalib served as Foreign Minister. As Foreign Minister, in January, 1972 he was President of the United Nations Security Council.
In 1972, he the lead mediator between Uganda and Tanzania during the Uganda–Tanzania War. Ghalib Brought Somalia into the Arab League in 1974 during his term as Foreign Minister of Somalia.
Prime Minister of Somali Democratic Republic
On 24 January 1991, he was appointed by then President of Somali Democratic Republic Siad Barre as the last Prime Minister under the latter's regime.
After Barre's ouster, the next president, Ali Mahdi Muhammad, reappointed Ghalib as prime minister, a position Ghalib would hold until May 1993.
Imprisonment and trial
On 7 June 1982, Omar Arteh Ghalib and 16 other senior leaders were removed from all party and government posts and arrested. On 7 February 1988, the trial of Arteh, former vice president Ismail Ali Abokor and other indictees ended. Omar Arteh Ghalib was sentenced to death, but under pressure from the international community and human rights organizations his death penalty was replaced by a prison term.