Theodora may refer to: Theodora (given name), a given name of Greek origin, meaning "God's gift"
- Theodora (6th century), wife of Byzantine (Eastern Roman) emperor Justinian I, considered a saint by the Greek Orthodox Church
- Theodora of Khazaria, 7th-century empress, wife of Justinian II
- Theodora (wife of Theophilos), 9th-century empress
- Theodora, wife of Romanos I, 10th-century empress, wife of Romanos I
- Theodora, daughter of Constantine VII, 10th-century empress, wife of John I Tzimiskes
- Theodora (11th century), empress who ruled 1055-1056
- Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, 13th-century empress, wife of Michael VIII Palaiologos
Empresses of Trebizond
- Theodora Axuchina, empress consort of Alexios I of Trebizond
- Theodora of Trebizond, empress regnant from 1284 to 1285
- Theodora Kantakouzene, empress consort of Alexios III of Trebizond
- Theodora Kantakouzene (wife of Alexios IV of Trebizond), empress consort of Alexios IV of Trebizond
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