Baba Shah Inayat Qadiri Shatari (Punjabi: شاه عنایت قادري , also called Enayat Shah (1643–1728) was a Sufi saint of the Qadiri-Shatari lineage (silsila) who was born in Kasur near Lahore, in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan. Shah Inayat Qadiri was widely known as the spiritual guide of the universal Punjabi poets Bulleh Shah and Waris Shah.
Bulleh Shah, who himself was a very well respected Sufi poet, said this about his beloved teacher Shah Inayat:
"Bullah has fallen in love with the Master. He has given his life and body as earnest. His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat who has captivated his heart."
A Sayyad or Hashmiat holds the highest social reverence in Muslim community. Bulleh Shah shows his humility in this Punjabi couplet by saying that albeit he is a Sayyad (or Hashmiat), the tribe of [Muhammad|Prophet Muhammad] but even then he considers himself less than his great master Shah Inayat who was not a Sayyad but was an Arain, meaning of humble indigenous origins. The Arain murshid of Bulleh Shah used to earn his livelihood by farming and gardening in his inherited orchard located in Kasur.
Shah Inayat Qadiri Shatari was later known as Inayat Shah Lahori when he migrated to Lahore. The saint had to migrate to Lahore because the ruler of the Kasur at that time, Hussain Khan, treacherously orchestrated the exile of the saint from Kasur due to jealousy. When Shah Inayat left Kasur, the town suffered from a major drought that year and the ruler of Kasur, Hussain Khan, also died soon after that. According to the legend it was due to his treachery towards the saint and was the ultimate punishment from God. Shah Inayat Qadiri spent the rest of his life in Lahore thereafter.
Shah Inayat was from the Qadiri-Shatari lineage (silsila) which is a Sufi order branching from The Qadria Silsila (or chain). Almost all of the Qadri's Sufi orders trace their origin to Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani. Syed Abdul Qadir was son of Mawlawi Pir Mohammad of Kasur, who was an Imam of a mosque.
Even today, thousands of devotees throughout Pakistan attend his "urs" (Death Anniversary) every year and offer "fatiha" (prayers) for the preacher, saint, author and philosopher of the 16th and 17th century. Hazrat Shah Inayat was a religious scholar, spiritual leader and the writer of several books on mysticism. Dasturul Amal, Islahul Amal, Lataif-e-Ghaibya and Ishartul Taliban are few of his popular books. He was also the Imam of the Unchi Masjid in lahore Bhatti gate.
He died roughly around 1730 and is buried near Fatimah Jinnah Medical College on Queens Road Lahore. There is also a mosque built next to his tomb which is in a shrine and his two sons are also buried next to him.
Some Further Notes
Quoting from Syed Ahsan Ullah "Great Sufi Poets of the Punjab":
"The Wazai-i-Kalaan" gives the year of his death as 1728 AD, during the time of Emperor Muhammad Shah Jahan. He had acquired a good knowledge of Persian and Arabic. As he was born in an Arain house, his ancestry goes back to those Arabic tribes of Damascus who arrived at Indian subcontinent with Muhammad Bin Qasim.
He had mystic disposition and later became a disciple of the famous Sufi scholar "Muhammad Ali Raza Shattari." Upon saying of his spiritual teacher Muhammad Ali Raza Shattari, Shah Inayat migrated to Lahore where he established an institution of his own. In this institution came men of education for advanced learning in philosophy, Sufism and other "spiritual sciences of the time."
Shah Inayat wrote considerably on Sufism and its developments. His writings were mostly in Persian. He was an erudite scholar, whom Bulleh Shah and also Waris Shah considered their "Hadi" and "Peer O Murshid."
In the "Song of the Saints of India" (Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind) occurs the following reference;
From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat,
He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah.
He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana.
The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy.
From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore;
Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation.
It is at this place that we find his tomb.
In 1141 he departed from this world.
Shah Inayat wrote "Dastur-al-Amal" in which he describes the methods of ancient Hindu rishis who were the inhabitants of Indian subcontinent and were considered passing through these stages as necessary for God-realization.