Rana Shantashil Rajyeswar Mitter FBA (born 1969) is a British historian and political scientist of Indian origin who specialises in the history of republican China. He is Professor of the History and Politics of Modern China at the Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University, Deutsche Bank Director of the Dickson Poon China Centre, and a Fellow and Vice-Master of St Cross College. His 2013 book China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival (titled Forgotten Ally: China’s War with Japan, 1937-45 for publication in the US), about the Second Sino-Japanese War, was well received by critics.
He is also a regular presenter for Night Waves (now known as "Free Thinking") on BBC Radio 3.
On 16 July 2015, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA).