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Pujie

Pujie Younger brother of Puyi

Younger brother of Puyi
The basics
Quick Facts
Intro Younger brother of Puyi
Was Artist Calligrapher Politician
From China
Type Arts Creativity Politics
Gender male
Birth 16 April 1907, Beijing, People's Republic of China
Death 28 February 1994, Beijing, People's Republic of China (aged 86 years)
Star sign AriesAries
Family
Mother: Youlan (noble)
Father: Zaifeng, Prince Chun
Siblings: PuyiJin YouzhiJin YunyingYunhuan
Spouse: Hiro Saga
Children: HuishengFukunaga Kosei
The details
Biography

Pujie (Chinese: 溥傑; 16 April 1907 – 28 February 1994) was a Qing dynasty imperial prince of Manchu descent. He was born in the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty. Pujie was the younger brother of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Pujie went to Japan, where he was educated and married to Saga Hiro, a Japanese noblewoman. In 1937, he moved to Manchukuo, where his brother ruled as Emperor under varying degrees of Japanese control during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). After the war ended, Pujie was captured by Soviet forces, held in Soviet prison camps for five years, and then extradited back to the People's Republic of China, where he was incarcerated for about 10 years in the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre. He was later pardoned and released from prison by the Chinese government, after which he remained in Beijing where he joined the Communist Party and served in a number of positions in the party until his death in 1994.

Names

Pujie's Manchu name was ᡦᡠ ᡤᡳᠶᡝ; Pu-giye, his courtesy name Junzhi, and his art name Bingfan. Zeng Guofan was a source of inspiration for Pujie's art name, Bingfan. Bingfan means "live up to (the legacy of Zeng Guo)fan".

Early life

Pujie was the second son of Zaifeng (Prince Chun) and his primary consort, Youlan. As a child, he was brought to the Forbidden City in Beijing to be a playmate and classmate to his brother, Puyi. A well-known incident recounted how Puyi threw a tantrum when he saw that the inner lining of one of Pujie's coats was yellow, because yellow was traditionally a colour reserved only for the emperor.

In 1929, Pujie travelled to Japan and was educated in the Gakushuin Peers' School. He became fluent in Japanese. Later, he enrolled at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and graduated in July 1935.

Pujie was first married in 1924 to a Manchu noblewoman, Tang Shixia, but they had no children. He left his wife behind when he went to Japan, and the marriage was dissolved some years later. After graduating from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, Pujie agreed to an arranged marriage with a Japanese noblewoman. He selected Saga Hiro, who was a relative of the Japanese imperial family, from a photograph from a number of possible candidates vetted by the Kwantung Army. As Puyi did not have an heir, the wedding had strong political implications, and was aimed at both fortifying relations between the two countries and introducing Japanese blood into the Manchu imperial family.

The engagement ceremony took place at the Manchukuo embassy in Tokyo on 2 February 1937 with the official wedding held in the Imperial Army Hall at Kudanzaka, Tokyo, on 3 April. In October, the couple moved to Hsinking, the capital of Manchukuo, where Puyi was then the Emperor.

Life in Manchukuo

As Puyi had no children, Pujie was regarded as first in line to succeed his brother as the emperor of Manchukuo; the Japanese officially proclaimed him the heir apparent. However, Pujie was not appointed by his brother as the heir to the throne of the Qing dynasty, as imperial tradition stated that a childless emperor should choose his heir from a subsequent generation instead of from his own generation. While in Manchukuo, Pujie served as honorary head of the Manchukuo Imperial Guards. He returned briefly to Japan in 1944 to attend the Army Staff College.

At the time of the collapse of Manchukuo during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, Pujie initially attempted to escape to Japan with his brother. However, as it became apparent that no escape was possible, he opted to return to Hsinking in an unsuccessful attempt to surrender the city to forces of the Republic of China, rather than have the city fall into foreign hands.

Pujie was arrested by the Soviet Red Army and first sent to a prison camp in Chita, and then to another in Khabarovsk along with his brother and other relatives. He spent about five years in the Soviet prison camps until 1950, when the Sino-Soviet rapprochement allowed him and his fellow captives to be extradited to the newly founded People's Republic of China.

Life in the People's Republic of China

On his return to China, Pujie was incarcerated in the War Criminals Management Centre in Fushun, Liaoning. A model prisoner, he was eventually pardoned and released from prison by the Chinese government. He joined the Communist Party and served in a number of positions.

In 1978, Pujie became a deputy from Shanghai at the 5th National People's Congress. He subsequently served as Vice Chairman of the Nationalities Committee of the 6th National People's Congress in 1983. He was appointed Deputy Head of the China-Japan Friendship Group from 1985. He rose to a seat on the Presidium of the 7th National People's Congress in 1988. From 1986, Pujie was also Honorary Director for the Handicapped Welfare Fund.

Pujie was also a technical adviser for the 1987 film The Last Emperor directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. On 28 November 1991, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws by Ritsumeikan University. He died of illness at 07:55 hours on 28 February 1994 in Beijing at the age of 87. His body was cremated and half of his ashes were buried in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, while the other half were buried in Beijing.

Family

  • Father: Zaifeng, Prince Chun of the First Rank (醇親王 載灃; 12 February 1883 – 3 February 1951)
    • Grandfather: Yixuan, Prince Chunxian of the First Rank (醇賢親王 奕譞; 16 October 1840 – 1 January 1891)
    • Grandmother: Secondary consort, of the Liugiya clan (側福晉 劉佳氏; 1866–1925), personal name Cuiyan (翠妍)
  • Mother: Primary consort, of the Gūwalgiya clan (嫡福晉 瓜爾佳氏; 1884 – 30 September 1921), personal name Youlan (幼蘭)
    • Grandfather: Ronglu (1836–1903), served as the Minister of Works from 1878–1879, the Minister of War from 1895–1898, the Viceroy of Zhili in 1898 and a Grand Secretary in the Wenhua Hall (文華殿) from 1898–1902 and the Wenyuan Library from 1902–1903, and held the title of a first class baron (一等男)
    • Grandmother: Lady Aisin Gioro

  • Consorts and Issue:
    • Wife, of the Tang clan (唐氏; 1904–1993), personal name Shixia (石霞)
    • Wife, of the Saga clan (嵯峨氏; 16 March 1914 – 20 June 1987), personal name Hiro ()
      • Huisheng (26 February 1938 – 4 December 1957), (慧生)
      • Husheng (b. 13 March 1940), (嫮生)
        • Married Kenji (健治) of the Japanese Fukunaga (福永) clan in 1968, and had issue (three sons, two daughters)

Immediate family

Pujie's first wife was Tang Yiying (唐怡瑩; 1904–1993), who was better known as Tang Shixia (唐石霞). She was from the Manchu Tatara (他他拉) clan, and was the daughter of Zhiqi, a brother of the Guangxu Emperor's concubines Consort Zhen and Consort Jin. Pujie married Tang when he was 17, but did not get along well with her. In 1926, Tang became Zhang Xueliang's mistress and broke ties with Pujie and his family. When Pujie went to Japan for his studies, Tang had another affair – this time with Lu Xiaojia (盧筱嘉), the son of the warlord Lu Yongxiang. She looted Pujie's ancestral house, the Prince Chun Residence in Beijing. Since then, Pujie and Tang had lived separately until their divorce. In 1949, Tang moved to Hong Kong and became a lecturer at the School of Eastern Languages in the University of Hong Kong.

In 1935, when Pujie returned to China from his studies in Japan, Puyi tried to help his brother find a Manchu wife. Pujie met one Wang Mintong (王敏彤) but they never married.

Pujie eventually married Saga Hiro, a Japanese noblewoman related to the Japanese imperial family, under an arranged marriage. They had two daughters: Huisheng (1938–1957) and Husheng (嫮生; born 1940). Huisheng died on 4 December 1957 at Mount Amagi in Japan in what appeared to be a murder-suicide case, while Husheng married Fukunaga Kenji (福永健治) and became known as "Fukunaga Kosei" after her marriage. The couple had five children.

Succession

Under the terms of a Manchukuo succession law adopted in 1937, Pujie, as the emperor's full-brother, was heir to the throne of Manchukuo when Puyi died in 1967. Pujie had no sons. When he died, the right of succession was passed to his closest male relative, his half-brother Jin Youzhi.

Ancestry

16. Jiaqing Emperor
16. Jiaqing Emperor
8. Daoguang Emperor
17. Empress Xiaoshurui
4. Yixuan, Prince Chun
18. Lingshou (靈壽)
9. Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun
19. Lady Weng
2. Zaifeng, Prince Chun
10. Deqing (德慶)
5. Liugiya Cuiyan
1. Pujie
24. Tasiha (塔斯哈)
12. Changshou (長壽)
6. Ronglu
13. Lady Uja
3. Gūwalgiya Youlan
14. Linggui (靈桂)
7. Lady Aisin Gioro
15. Lady Sun
16. Jiaqing Emperor
8. Daoguang Emperor
17. Empress Xiaoshurui
4. Yixuan, Prince Chun
18. Lingshou (靈壽)
9. Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun
19. Lady Weng
2. Zaifeng, Prince Chun
10. Deqing (德慶)
5. Liugiya Cuiyan
1. Pujie
24. Tasiha (塔斯哈)
12. Changshou (長壽)
6. Ronglu
13. Lady Uja
3. Gūwalgiya Youlan
14. Linggui (靈桂)
7. Lady Aisin Gioro
15. Lady Sun
8. Daoguang Emperor
17. Empress Xiaoshurui
4. Yixuan, Prince Chun
18. Lingshou (靈壽)
9. Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun
19. Lady Weng
2. Zaifeng, Prince Chun
10. Deqing (德慶)
5. Liugiya Cuiyan
1. Pujie
24. Tasiha (塔斯哈)
12. Changshou (長壽)
6. Ronglu
13. Lady Uja
3. Gūwalgiya Youlan
14. Linggui (靈桂)
7. Lady Aisin Gioro
15. Lady Sun
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Reference sources
References
https://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/02/obituaries/pu-jie-87-dies-ending-dynasty-of-the-manchus.html
https://archive.org/details/lastemperor00behr
https://archive.org/details/cambridgehandboo0000mack
https://web.archive.org/web/20051001070201/http://www.city.chiba.jp/ward/e-inage/history/aisinkakurahuketsu.html
http://www.jdorama.com/drama.794.htm
https://d-nb.info/gnd/12078498X
http://isni.org/isni/000000008204367X
https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n86001786
https://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlna/00375021
https://nl.go.kr/authorities/resource/KAC200602267
http://data.bibliotheken.nl/id/thes/p196781485
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