|Birth||May 19, 1866 (Rio de Janeiro)|
|Death||July 6, 1934 (Vienna)|
Peter August Ludwig Maria Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga (Portuguese: Pedro Augusto Luís Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga; 19 March 1866 – 6 July 1934), known in Brazil as Dom Pedro Augusto, was a prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry and a prince of the Empire of Brazil. He was the first of four sons born to German Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Leopoldina of Brazil.
Family and early years
The eldest son of Prince Louis Augustus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony, and of Dona Leopoldina of Braganza, Princess of Brazil, Dom Pedro Augusto was also the first grandson of Dom Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina. Her paternal grandparents were Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Princess Clementine of Orleans (daughter of King Louis Philippe of France) . [1 Princess]
Due to the lack of heirs by the Imperial Princess and the miscarriage suffered by Dona Leopoldina in her first pregnancy, high expectations had been surrounding the birth of Don Pedro Augusto.  On the eve of the birth, the council of ministers as well as representatives of the legislative, the Great Empire and the entire diplomatic corps were alerted to the big event. At 16:10h of March 19th, 1866, at the Leopoldina Hall, "The Preferred" came into the world, and his birth was announced with three rockets fired from the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão, followed by volleys of guns of the forts and ships anchored in the bar. [Note 1] The baptism was held in April in the Imperial Chapel. In the "Speech from the Throne" on May 3 of that year, the emperor made reference to the happy event.
By virtue of the marriage contract between Princess Leopoldina and the Duke of Saxe, the couple undertook to reside part of the year in Brazil as the emperor considered the succession of Princess Isabel as not assured. [Assim,] Dom Pedro Augusto spent part of his early childhood in Brazil and part in Europe. A few weeks after the birth of her fourth and last son, Prince Louis Gaston, Dona Leopoldina contracted typhoid fever and died in Vienna on February 7, 1871, at twenty-three years of age [.Neste] That same year, the Imperial couple made their first visit to Europe, where a family council decided that Don Pedro Augusto and his brother, Don Augusto Leopoldo, must return to Brazil to be raised by his maternal grandparents. At the request of the Emperor, doctor Manuel Pacheco da Silva (the future Baron Pacheco) left his position as dean of Externato Dom Pedro II to become tutor to the Emperor's grandchildren, because they "(...) are lagging badly in speaking Portuguese, only know the German language. " At eight, the young prince was enrolled at the Imperial College of Pedro II, becoming a Bachelor of Science and Letters in 1881. On April 1, 1887, he graduated in Civil Engineering from Polytechnica School, having already delivered a lecture on Académie des Sciences. A scholar like his grandfather, Peter Augustus was a member of the Institut de France and author of several works on mineralogy, taken today as gems.
The imperial succession
The apparent infertility of Princess Dona Isabel meant that Pedro Augusto was considered the heir apparent since the day of his birth. He was described as the favorite grandson of the emperor, who was connected to him by ties of affection and common interests. At nine years of age, the prince found himself sliding down in the line of succession, because of the birth of his cousin Don Pedro de Alcântara, who has had the title of Prince of the Grand Pará. [12 18]
This change of circumsatnces is said to have affected the behaviour of Peter Augusto considerably.  After the birth of his cousin and throughout his adolescence, the prince suffered from insomnia, intense headaches, palpitations, and hand tremors. His recurring fear of death (fearing to be infected with the same disease that killed his mother) became a source of concern for his father. [and avós.20]
Installed in Leopoldina Palace, an annex residence of the Palace of São Cristóvão, the prince became quite popular, holding receptions and banquets, even to the point of forming an informal court around him. The sums of money which he required from his father increased considerably, leading Luís Augusto asking for explanations from the emperor. 
The preference of the emperor for his eldest grandson caused jealousy in the imperial princess and fed the speculation about a turnaround in the line of succession. Diplomatic correspondences [nota 2 and press left] allow an insight into family divisions. The alleged religious fanaticism and the policies of Dona Isabel ended up creating a climate in which a faction of the elite favoured a [III] future reign by Don Pedro Augusto.  The Conspirator Prince, as he was called in Parliament, had, according to his contemporaries, active participation in the campaign that intended to promote him to the throne instead of his aunt and cousin. His greatest mentor in these affairs, and one of its most enthusiastic promoters, was the counselor Sousa Dias, president of the council of ministers between 1884 and 1885.  In Europe, where he was with his grandparents between 1887 and 1888, Eduardo Prado and Baron Star were propagating his virtues in contrast to the "defects" of Dona Isabel.
Indeed, on his European tour, in all countries and royal houses he visited, Dom Pedro Augusto was received with the pomp worthy of an heir to the throne. His popularity grew by leaps and bounds. In France he received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor; in Portugal, King Dom Luís I awarded him the Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Espada.  His return to Brazil deepened the silent crisis within the Imperial Family. Support the prince grew in number and political weight: Baron Maya Monteiro, Count de Figueiredo, the Marquis of Paranaguá - among other leading politicians - and even the empress herself became his partisans. 
Republic and exile
Dom Pedro Augusto learned of the military coup that resulted in the Proclamation of the Republic hours after the incident, when returning from a horseback ride. Forced by the provisional government to go into exile, on November 17, at dawn, all members of the Imperial family - with the exception of Don Augusto, who was in circumnavigation with the Imperial Navy in the East - boarded the steamer Alagoas and were escorted by the battleship Riachuelo up to the limits of the Brazilian territorial waters. It was aboard the Alagoas that Prince had his first psychotic break-down: he tried to strangle the captain, accusing him of having taken a bribe in order to kill everyone on board. Restrained and locked in his cabin, he was stricken with persecutory delusions, and ended up wrapping his body in a lifeguard buoy, fearing that the ship was being bombed. WIth alternating phases of excitement and lethargy, Pedro Augusto threw bottles overboard with requests for help. There are records of at least one of these messages, found a bottle on Maragogi beach:
Having arrived in his European exile, Pedro Augusto was taken for psychiatric treatment in Graz (Austria). A few weeks later he was discharged and met with his grandparents when they received the news of the death of Dona Teresa Cristina, the only family ally in his pretensions to the throne. With the move of the family to Cannes, he contacted old supporters and tried to plan the monarchical restoration in Brazil. However, his psychological situation deteriorated further, and the few royalists still active soon withdrew their support from the prince.
Madness and death
Having been abandoned by the "pedristas", Pedro Augusto's psychiatric symptoms progressively worsened. His nights were sleepless, he did not eat, and he began babbling incomprehensible words or ranting against imaginary enemies. Often the servants of the Coburg Palace found him huddled in a corner with a glazed look and foaming at the mouth.
The few remaining friends tried in vain to help him. At the request of the physician Jean Charcot, the young man was examined by the famous Sigmund Freud, as evidenced by Augusto Leopoldo in a letter to Baron de Santa Vitória:
"I want to thank for the visit of the young Doctor Sigmund Freud sent by the good Dr. Jean Charcot. In his opinion, there was in my brother no monomaniac symptoms or uncontrolled excitement, constituting only a deep depression and unhappiness. What he felt is that he is exhausted, recommending, for now, plenty of rest. "
Although his health showed signs of recovery, royalists ended up investing their hopes and support in his brother as pretender to the throne. [extinto.38] With the death of Dom Pedro II, on December 5, 1891, melancholy and mania returned. Pedro Augusto accused aunt and uncle, princess Isablla and the Count d'Eu, to spread rumours about his sanity; and he accused journalists of putting his masculinity in doubt [traição.39]
In October 1893, articles published in French and Argentine newspapers recognized the status of his cousin Don Pedro de Alcântara as (de facto) emperor of Brazil. The led Pedro Augusto to the brink of collapse, and his old persecutory delusions returned. After being restrained and sent to the Coburg Palace again, he attempted suicide by throwing himself through one of the windows of his room.
Admitted by his father to a sanatorium in Tulln an der Donau, "The Preferred" spent the rest of his life believing that he would one day become Emperor of Brazil. On April 25, 1900, all of his personal belongings were auctioned off in Vienna. The prince died July 7, 1934, at 68 years of age and after over four decades of hospitalization. His body was buried in the crypt of the Sankt-Augustin-Kirche in Coburg.
Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I
Grand Cross of the Order of the Rose
Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword
Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold
Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
Grand Cross of the Order of St Alexander
|Ancestors of Prince Pedro Augusto of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|