Peter Vallentyne (born March 25, 1952, in New Haven, Connecticut) is Florence G. Kline Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. He holds dual citizenship in the United States and Canada.
He received his Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1984, under the direction of David Gauthier and with significant help from Shelly Kagan. He formerly taught at the University of Western Ontario (1984-88) and Virginia Commonwealth University (1988-2003).
Vallentyne has written on a variety of topics in ethical theory and political philosophy, including consequentialism, contractarianism, moral dilemmas, responsibility, equality, self-ownership, liberty, and justice. He defends a version of equal opportunity for wellbeing left-libertarianism.
- Vallentyne, Peter (1991). Contractarianism and rational choice : essays on David Gauthier's Morals by agreement. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521398152.
- Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). Left-libertarianism and its critics: the contemporary debate. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave. ISBN 9780312236991.
- Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). The origins of left-libertarianism: an anthology of historical writings. Houndmills New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312235918.
- Vallentyne, Peter (2003). Equality and justice (6 volumes). New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415941426.