Peter Esben-Petersen (18 December 1869 in Sverup near Silkeborg – 2 April 1942 in Silkeborg) was a Danish entomologist who specialised in world Neuroptera. He was also interested in the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera and other insects of Denmark.
Esben-Petersen was a teacher in Silkeborg. He was associated with the entomological series Danmarks Flora og Fauna.For his scientific work on world fauna he received an honorary degree from the University of Copenhagen. His insect collection is conserved in the Zoological Museum in Copenhagen (mainly, some parts are in the Natural History Museum in Aarhhus da:Naturhistorisk Museum).
- Bidrag til en Fortegnelse over Arktisk Norges Neuropterfauna I. Tromsø Museums Aarshefter (25): 119 - 153 (1902)
- Bidrag til en Fortegnelse over Arktisk Norges Neuropterfauna II.Tromsø Museums Aarshefter, (31/32): 75:- 89 (1908–09)
- New Species of Neuroptera Planipennia in British Collections Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Volume 97, Issue 3, pages 549–551 (1927)
- Bidrag til en Fortegnelse over Bornholms Insektfauna: Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Copeognatha, Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera.Entomologiske Meddelelser 18: 215-238 (1933)