Oskar Kaplur (Oscar F. Kaplyur; Russian: Оска́р Фри́дрихович Каплю́р; 20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1889 – 20 September 1962) was a Russian wrestler. He competed for Russian Empire in the lightweight event at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
He lived in USA in 1913—1918, returned to Russia in 1918 and worked in aircraft industry. He was known as inventor of Kaplyurit, plastic-impregnated plywood reinforced with internal steel gauze.