Michael A. Zasloff is an American doctor, immunologist, medical researcher, professor, and geneticist. He is currently Scientific Director, MedStar-Georgetown Transplant Institute, Georgetown University Hospital.
He is well known for his work on innate immunity and antimicrobial peptides including the discovery of Magainin from the frog Xenopus laevis and the identification of the essential amino acid isoleucine as an inducer of anti-microbial peptides.
In 1993 Zasloff reported the discovery of the aminosterol squalamine from the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. He founded the pharmaceutical company Magainin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. He was Chief of the Genetics Branch of the NIH's National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in the 1980s, and later, Upham Professor of Pediatrics and Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Human Genetics of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Between 2002-2004 he served as Dean of Research and Translational Science for Georgetown University School of Medicine. Currently he is at the Georgetown Transplant Institute of the Department of Surgery.
Michael Alan Zasloff was born to a Jewish family, the son a dentist and an artist. Growing up on Manhattan's West Side, he studied at the Bronx High School of Science.
Dr. Zasloff received a B.A. from Columbia College in Chemistry and holds an M.D., Ph.D. from the New York University School of Medicine. He completed his Ph.D. under Dr. Severo Ochoa (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1959)
Zasloff completed residency training in Pediatrics at the Boston Children's Hospital. In 1975 he joined the National Institutes of Health as a Research Associate in the National Institutes of Arthritis, Metabolic and Digestive Diseases completing his post doctoral studies with Dr. Gary Felsenfeld, and concurrently completed a Fellowship in Human Genetics at Johns Hopkins with Dr. Victor McKusick.
From 1982 until 1988, Dr. Zasloff was Chief, Human Genetics Branch, at the National Institute of Health in both Child Health and Human Development. In the early 1980's Dr. Zasloff discovered the existence of a specific mechanism involved in the transport of tRNA from the nucleus of a cell to its cytoplasm. In 1987 he reported the discovery of magainin, an antimicrobial peptide in the skin of the African Clawed Frog. His laboratory subsequently discovered the beta-defensin family in the mammalian epithelium. Dr. Zasloff discovered the underlying basis of pulmonary infections in Cystic Fibrosis to be a malfunctioning of these newly described antimicrobial peptides in the airway of the individuals with cystic fibrosis.
From the late 1980's, along with Dr. Fred Kaplan (University of Pennsylvania), Dr. Zasloff began research on the cause and treatment of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP).
In 1988 Dr Zasloff founded Magainin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. a publicly traded biotechnology company. In July 1992 Dr. Zasloff joined Magainin on a full-time basis, and served as Executive Vice President and President of the Magainin Research Institute, a basic research division of the Company. From July 1996 through November 2000 Dr. Zasloff was Vice Chairman of the Board of Magainin Pharmaceuticals.
In 1991, while at Penn, Dr. Zasloff and his group discovered squalamine in tissues of the dogfish shark, the first of a novel class of steroids, called aminosterols. Subsequently his group discovered squalamine to be a potent antiangiogenic compound with activity against solid tumors. He guided its development into clinical trials. Squalamine is currently in Phase II clinical trials being evaluated by Ohr Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the topical treatment of wet age related macular degeneration (AMD).
In 2015 Dr. Zasloff, along with Drs. Denise Barbut and Bill Kinney, founded Enterin, Inc. to develop drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases that involve both the central and enteric nervous systems.
Dr. Zasloff has served on several corporate boards, including Amphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Lead Independent Director, 2005–present), Biosynexus, Inc. (2005 - 2010), Enterin, Inc ( Chairman, 2015–present), Sarentis, Inc. (2016-present), Novo Biosciences (2013-present), and Formula XO, Inc. (Chairman, 2013–present). He also has served on the scientific advisory boards of Novozymes (2005-2008) and Dipexium Pharmaceuticals (2007–present), which was formerly known as Macrochem.
In the mid-2000s, Dr. Zasloff began studying surfactants safe for the dermal biome, including Lauryl Methyl Glucamide (LMG). Research in the field of innate immunity had clearly demonstrated that antimicrobial peptides and lipids were key components of the dermal biome, providing both defense against harmful microbes and retention of moisture. Dr Zasloff recognized that commonly used skin cleansers and shampoos removed these important components of the biome because of the nature of the detergents that provided cleansing action. With partners, he developed a skin cleanser and protectant using LMG, a product called Détente.
In 2012, Dr. Zasloff began work on a new set of products that featured LMG as a surfactant to cleanse and protect the scalp and hair. In 2013, he successfully developed a method for stabilizing LMG at high concentrations and/or low temperatures, and was awarded a patent for use in personal care products in 2015. Dr. Zasloff then co-founded Formula XO, Inc., and used the formula as the basis for the illumai Biome Care System. He now serves as Formula XO’s Chief Scientific Officer and actively assists the company in developing the illumai brand.
Dr. Zasloff is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Kilby Award for Creativity and Innovation, and the Berson Award in Basic Science from New York University. He is the author of over 180 original peer-reviewed publications, and 47 US and international patents.
Dr. Zasloff and his team have been responsible for the discovery, clinical and commercial development of several compounds, including Pexiganan, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide developed for the treatment of infection in diabetics, the first entirely new class of antibiotic to be developed as a therapeutic in 30 years. Pexiganan is currently being developed by Dipexium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Dr. Zasloff held an endowed chair as the Charles E.H. Upham Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and Chief, Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Dr. Zasloff remains affiliated with Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania as an Adjunct Professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Molecular Orthopedics. In January 2002, Dr. Zasloff assumed the position of Dean of Research and Translational Science at Georgetown University.
Time Inc. included Zasloff's latest work with Squalamine in, "100 New Scientific Discoveries; Fascinating, Momentous and Mind-expanding Stories." In 2012, Dr. Zasloff delivered the Commencement Address at Georgetown University School of Medicine and received an honorary Sc.D.
Honors and other sources
Information on Dr. Michael A. Zasloff can be found at his Georgetown Faculty Page including his Curriculum Vitae
- Zasloff, M. (2011). "Observations on the Remarkable (and Mysterious) Wound-Healing Process of the Bottlenose Dolphin". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 131 (12): 2503–2505. doi:10.1038/jid.2011.220. PMID 21776005.
- Zasloff, M. (2002). "Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms". Nature. 415 (6870): 389–395. doi:10.1038/415389a. PMID 11807545.
- Zasloff, M.; Adams, A. P.; Beckerman, B.; Campbell, A.; Han, Z.; Luijten, E.; Meza, I.; Julander, J.; Mishra, A.; Qu, W.; Taylor, J. M.; Weaver, S. C.; Wong, G. C. L. (2011). "Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (38): 15978–15983. doi:10.1073/pnas.1108558108. PMC 3179074
- Hartman, A. L.; Lough, D. M.; Barupal, D. K.; Fiehn, O.; Fishbein, T.; Zasloff, M.; Eisen, J. A. (2009). "Human gut microbiome adopts an alternative state following small bowel transplantation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (40): 17187–17192. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904847106. PMC 2746123
- Zasloff, M. (2006). "Defending the epithelium". Nature Medicine. 12 (6): 607–608. doi:10.1038/nm0606-607. PMID 16760999.
- Zasloff, M. (2006). "Inducing endogenous antimicrobial peptides to battle infections". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (24): 8913–8914. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603508103. PMC 1482538
- Minter, L. M.; Turley, D. M.; Das, P.; Shin, H. M.; Joshi, I.; Lawlor, R. G.; Cho, O. H.; Palaga, T.; Gottipati, S.; Telfer, J. C.; Kostura, L.; Fauq, A. H.; Simpson, K.; Such, K. A.; Miele, L.; Golde, T. E.; Miller, S. D.; Osborne, B. A. (2005). "Inhibitors of γ-secretase block in vivo and in vitro T helper type 1 polarization by preventing Notch upregulation of Tbx21". Nature Immunology. 6 (7): 680–688. doi:10.1038/ni1209. PMID 15908937.
- Zasloff, M. (2002). "Innate immunity, antimicrobial peptides, and protection of the oral cavity". The Lancet. 360 (9340): 1116–1117. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11239-6. PMID 12387955.
- Zasloff, M. (2002). "Antimicrobial Peptides in Health and Disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (15): 1199–1200. doi:10.1056/NEJMe020106. PMID 12374882.
- Zasloff, M. (1992). "Antibiotic peptides as mediators of innate immunity". Current opinion in immunology. 4 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1016/0952-7915(92)90115-u. PMID 1596366.
- Reilly, D. S.; Tomassini, N.; Zasloff, M. (1994). "Expression of Magainin Antimicrobial Peptide Genes in the Developing Granular Glands of Xenopus Skin and Induction by Thyroid Hormone". Developmental Biology. 162 (1): 123–133. doi:10.1006/dbio.1994.1072. PMID 8125181.
- Schonwetter, B. S.; Stolzenberg, E. D.; Zasloff, M. A. (1995). "Epithelial antibiotics induced at sites of inflammation". Science. 267 (5204): 1645–1648. doi:10.1126/science.7886453. PMID 7886453.
- Moore, K. S.; Wehrli, S.; Roder, H.; Rogers, M.; Forrest Jr, J. N.; McCrimmon, D.; Zasloff, M. (1993). "Squalamine: An aminosterol antibiotic from the shark". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 90 (4): 1354–1358. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.4.1354. PMC 45871
- Zasloff, M. (1987). "Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: Isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84 (15): 5449–5453. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.15.5449. PMC 298875
- Zasloff, M; Eslabbagh, AM; Fishbein, TM; Matsumoto, CS (2016). "The microbiome and its implications in intestinal transplantation". Current Opinion in Organ Transplant. 21: 135–9. doi:10.1097/MOT.0000000000000278. PMID 26761420.
- Zasloff, M; Mangoni, ML; McDermott (2016). "Antimicrobial Peptides and Wound Healing: Biological and Therapeutic Considerations". Experimental Dermatology. 25: 167–73. doi:10.1111/exd.12929. PMID 26738772.
- Zasloff, MA; Fishbein, TM; Matsumoto, CS (Jun 2014). "Chronic mucosal inflammation/inflammatory bowel disease-like inflammation after intestinal transplantation: where are we now?". Current Opinion in Organ Transplant. 19 (3): 276–80. doi:10.1097/MOT.0000000000000077. PMID 24752065.
- Zasloff, M; Bax, A; Grishaev, A; Maltsev, AS; Roche, J (Mar 2014). "Improved cross validation of a static ubiquitin structure derived from high precision residual dipolar couplings measured in a drug-based liquid crystalline phase". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 136 (10): 3752–5. doi:10.1021/ja4132642. PMC 3954408
- Zasloff, M (April 2013). "The antibacterial shield of the human urinary tract". Kidney International. 83 (4): 548–50. doi:10.1038/ki.2012.467. PMID 23538695.
- Zasloff, M; Guerra, JF; Lough, D; Abdo, J; Hawksworth, J; Mastumoto, C; Girlanda, R; Island, E; Shetty, K; Kaufman, S; Fishbein, T (Feb 2013). "Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 polymorphisms in patients with intestinal failure". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 28 (2): 309–13. doi:10.1111/jgh.12037. PMID 23173613.
- Zasloff, M (Oct 2012). "Defending the cornea with antibacterial fragments of keratin". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 122 (10): 3471–3. doi:10.1172/JCI65380. PMC 3461931