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Marcus Annius Verus Caesar
Son of Roman Emperor

Marcus Annius Verus Caesar

Marcus Annius Verus Caesar
The basics

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The details (from wikipedia)

Biography

Marcus Annius Verus Caesar (born 162 or 163 AD) was the 12th of 13 children of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Empress Faustina the Younger. Annius was made caesar on 12 October 166 AD, alongside his brother Commodus, designating them co-heirs of the Roman Empire. Annius died on 10 September 169, at age seven, due to complications from a surgery to remove a tumor from under his ear. His death left Commodus as the sole heir.

Life

Marcus Annius Verus was born in late 162 or 163 AD, the son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger. He was given the name of Marcus Annius Verus because it was the original name of his father, Marcus Aurelius.

On 12 October 166 AD, during a triumph celebrating the victory of the Romans in the Parthian War of Lucius Verus, Annius and his elder brother Commodus were both made caesars, designating them as co-heirs to the Roman Empire. At the time, Annius was three, and Commodus was five. This was the first time such an explicit declaration of heirship had been made at such a young age, and showed a marked shift from the traditional cursus honorum, in which a presumed heir would be gradually raised through offices of increasing importance, in order to learn the skills of all positions, to a new system of imperial succession, wherein dynastic hereditary descent was the path to the throne, with heirs being instructed in how to be an emperor.

Annius died on 10 September 169 AD, at seven years of age, due to complications in removing a tumor from under his ear. This left Commodus as the sole heir. His father, Marcus Aurelius, mourned his death for just five days, while still continuing public work. Aurelius argued that because the games of Jupiter Optimus Maximus were ongoing, he should not interrupt them with his mourning. His lack of mourning was likely influenced by his Stoic philosophy, which taught of the dangers of emotion, and the brutal culture of the Romans, which considered hysterical grief at the loss of loved ones as unmanly and unnatural. Aurelius ordered statues to be made in his honor, and a golden image of him to be carried during the procession of the games. Aurelius also had his name inserted into the Carmen Saliare, the ritual songs sung by the Salii, a group of 12 priests.

Family

Annius Verus was the son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger. Annius was the younger brother of, in order of birth: Domitia Faustina, Titus Aurelius Antoninus, Titus Aelius Aurelius, Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, Titus Aelius Antoninus, an unnamed son, Annia Aurelia Fadilla, Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (Commodus). Annius was the older brother of Hadrianus and Vibia Aurelia Sabina.

Nerva–Antonine family tree

  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  •   Reddish purple indicates emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

      lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned

      grey indicates unsuccessful imperial aspirants

      bluish purple indicates emperors of other dynasties
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)
Q. Marcius Barea SoranusQ. Marcius Barea SuraAntonia FurnillaM. Cocceius NervaSergia PlautillaP. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79–81)
Marcia FurnillaMarciaTrajanus PaterNerva
(r. 96–98)
UlpiaAelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia FlaviaMarcianaC. Salonius MatidiusTrajan
(r. 98–117)
PlotinaP. Acilius AttianusP. Aelius AferPaulina Major
Lucius Mindius
(2)
Libo Rupilius Frugi
(3)
MatidiaL. Vibius Sabinus
(1)
Paulina MinorL. Julius Ursus Servianus
Matidia MinorSuetonius?SabinaHadrian (r. 117–138)Antinous
Julia Balbilla?C. Fuscus Salinator IJulia Serviana Paulina
M. Annius VerusRupilia FaustinaBoionia ProcillaCn. Arrius Antoninus
L. Ceionius CommodusAppia SeveraC. Fuscus Salinator II
L. Caesennius PaetusArria AntoninaArria FadillaT. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius AntoninusL. CommodusFundania PlautiaignotaC. Avidius Nigrinus
M. Annius VerusDomitia LucillaFundaniaM. Annius LiboFAntoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
L. Aelius CaesarAvidia Plautia
CornificiaM A
(r. 161–180)
F MinorC. Avidius CassiusAurelia FadillaL V
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia FabiaPlautius QuintillusQ. Servilius PudensCeionia Plautia
Cornificia MinorM. Petronius SuraC
(r. 177–192)
FadillaM. Annius Verus CaesarTi. Claudius Pompeianus
(2)
LucillaM. Plautius QuintillusJunius Licinius BalbusServilia Ceionia
Petronius AntoninusL. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia SabinaL. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius QuintillusPlautia ServillaC. Furius Sabinus TimesitheusAntonia GordianaJunius Licinius Balbus?
Furia Sabina TranquillinaG III
(r. 238–244)
Q. Marcius Barea SoranusQ. Marcius Barea SuraAntonia FurnillaM. Cocceius NervaSergia PlautillaP. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79–81)
Marcia FurnillaMarciaTrajanus PaterNerva
(r. 96–98)
UlpiaAelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia FlaviaMarcianaC. Salonius MatidiusTrajan
(r. 98–117)
PlotinaP. Acilius AttianusP. Aelius AferPaulina Major
Lucius Mindius
(2)
Libo Rupilius Frugi
(3)
MatidiaL. Vibius Sabinus
(1)
Paulina MinorL. Julius Ursus Servianus
Matidia MinorSuetonius?SabinaHadrian (r. 117–138)Antinous
Julia Balbilla?C. Fuscus Salinator IJulia Serviana Paulina
M. Annius VerusRupilia FaustinaBoionia ProcillaCn. Arrius Antoninus
L. Ceionius CommodusAppia SeveraC. Fuscus Salinator II
L. Caesennius PaetusArria AntoninaArria FadillaT. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius AntoninusL. CommodusFundania PlautiaignotaC. Avidius Nigrinus
M. Annius VerusDomitia LucillaFundaniaM. Annius LiboFAntoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
L. Aelius CaesarAvidia Plautia
CornificiaM A
(r. 161–180)
F MinorC. Avidius CassiusAurelia FadillaL V
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia FabiaPlautius QuintillusQ. Servilius PudensCeionia Plautia
Cornificia MinorM. Petronius SuraC
(r. 177–192)
FadillaM. Annius Verus CaesarTi. Claudius Pompeianus
(2)
LucillaM. Plautius QuintillusJunius Licinius BalbusServilia Ceionia
Petronius AntoninusL. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia SabinaL. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius QuintillusPlautia ServillaC. Furius Sabinus TimesitheusAntonia GordianaJunius Licinius Balbus?
Furia Sabina TranquillinaG III
(r. 238–244)
  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  •   Reddish purple indicates emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

      lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned

      grey indicates unsuccessful imperial aspirants

      bluish purple indicates emperors of other dynasties
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)
  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  •   Reddish purple indicates emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

      lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned

      grey indicates unsuccessful imperial aspirants

      bluish purple indicates emperors of other dynasties
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)
Notes:

Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree.

  1. ^ Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7.
  2. ^ Giacosa (1977), p. 8.
  3. ^ Levick (2014), p. 161.
  4. ^ Husband of Ulpia Marciana: Levick (2014), p. 161.
  5. ^ Giacosa (1977), p. 7.
  6. ^ DIR contributor (Herbert W. Benario, 2000), "Hadrian".
  7. ^ Giacosa (1977), p. 9.
  8. ^ Husband of Salonia Matidia: Levick (2014), p. 161.
  9. ^ Smith (1870), "Julius Servianus".
  10. ^ Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of HA Hadrianus 11:3
  11. ^ Smith (1870), "Hadrian", pp. 319–322.
  12. ^ Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and passim; deification: Lamber (1984), pp. 2–5, etc.
  13. ^ Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997), Hadrian, the Restless Emperor, p. 251, cited in Levick (2014), p. 30, who is sceptical of this suggestion.
  14. ^ Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163.
  15. ^ Levick (2014), p. 163.
  16. ^ Levick (2014), p. 162.
  17. ^ Levick (2014), p. 164.
  18. ^ Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10.
  19. ^ Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163.
  20. ^ Giacosa (1977), p. 10.
  21. ^ The epitomator of Cassius Dio (72.22) gives the story that Faustina the Elder promised to marry Avidius Cassius. This is also echoed in HA "Marcus Aurelius" 24.
  22. ^ Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164.
  23. ^ Levick (2014), p. 117.
References:
  • DIR contributors (2000). "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families". Retrieved 2015-04-14.
  • Giacosa, Giorgio (1977). Women of the Caesars: Their Lives and Portraits on Coins. Translated by R. Ross Holloway. Milan: Edizioni Arte e Moneta. ISBN 0-8390-0193-2.
  • Lambert, Royston (1984). Beloved and God: The Story of Hadrian and Antinous. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-15708-2.
  • Levick, Barbara (2014). Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537941-9.
  • William Smith, ed. (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Q. Marcius Barea SoranusQ. Marcius Barea SuraAntonia FurnillaM. Cocceius NervaSergia PlautillaP. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79–81)
Marcia FurnillaMarciaTrajanus PaterNerva
(r. 96–98)
UlpiaAelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia FlaviaMarcianaC. Salonius MatidiusTrajan
(r. 98–117)
PlotinaP. Acilius AttianusP. Aelius AferPaulina Major
Lucius Mindius
(2)
Libo Rupilius Frugi
(3)
MatidiaL. Vibius Sabinus
(1)
Paulina MinorL. Julius Ursus Servianus
Matidia MinorSuetonius?SabinaHadrian (r. 117–138)Antinous
Julia Balbilla?C. Fuscus Salinator IJulia Serviana Paulina
M. Annius VerusRupilia FaustinaBoionia ProcillaCn. Arrius Antoninus
L. Ceionius CommodusAppia SeveraC. Fuscus Salinator II
L. Caesennius PaetusArria AntoninaArria FadillaT. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius AntoninusL. CommodusFundania PlautiaignotaC. Avidius Nigrinus
M. Annius VerusDomitia LucillaFundaniaM. Annius LiboFAntoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
L. Aelius CaesarAvidia Plautia
CornificiaM A
(r. 161–180)
F MinorC. Avidius CassiusAurelia FadillaL V
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia FabiaPlautius QuintillusQ. Servilius PudensCeionia Plautia
Cornificia MinorM. Petronius SuraC
(r. 177–192)
FadillaM. Annius Verus CaesarTi. Claudius Pompeianus
(2)
LucillaM. Plautius QuintillusJunius Licinius BalbusServilia Ceionia
Petronius AntoninusL. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia SabinaL. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius QuintillusPlautia ServillaC. Furius Sabinus TimesitheusAntonia GordianaJunius Licinius Balbus?
Furia Sabina TranquillinaG III
(r. 238–244)
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article on 02 Apr 2020. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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Reference sources
References
http://www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm
http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3125.html
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Hadrian/1*.html#11
http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1427.html
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/72*.html
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Marcus_Aurelius/2*.html
//www.worldcat.org/oclc/957321189
https://www.livius.org/di-dn/divi_fratres/marcus.html
http://www.roman-emperors.org/
Sections Marcus Annius Verus Caesar

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