Kutlug I Bilge Kagan
|Death||747, Ordu-Baliq, Mongolia|
Kutlug I Bilge Peilo Khagan, also known by his throne name Qutlugh Bilge Köl Qaghan (骨咄禄毗伽阙可汗, Gǔduōlù Píjiā Quē Kèhán), and in Chinese sources the personal name of Yaoluoge Yibiaobi (藥羅葛逸标苾) was the Kaghan of Uyghur Khaganate, the successor state of the Second Turkic Khaganate. He ruled from 744 to 747 AD.
Service in Second Turkic Khaganate
His title was Kutluk Boyla (Guli Peiluo - 骨力裴罗) during Second Turkic Khaganate. He was a son of Yaoluoge Hushu (藥羅葛护输). His father was the chieftain of Yaglakar clan and made numerous raids into Tang China. At one point he was able to ambush Jiedushi Wang Junchuo (王君㚟) killing him and wounding Niu Xianke in 727. He succeeded his father at some point after 727.
After Bilge Qaghan died, a factional struggle arose within the ruling Ashina clan. An alliance of Basmyls, Uyghurs and Karluks overthrew Göktürks and in the spring of 745 killed the last Ozmish Qaghan. At first, the Basmyl chief was elected a Kaghan titled Ilterish Kaghan (742—744), but he was soon overthrown by the allies, who elected Kutlug Boyla as Kutlug Bilge Kaghan.
After coming to power in 744, Kutlug Bilge Kaghan moved his court to Khar Balgas (Ordu-Baliq) in the Orkhon valley. In foreign policy, Kutlug Bilge Kaghan maintained alliance with the Tang China. He was created Prince of Fengyi (奉义王) and Huairen Khagan (怀仁可汗).
In 745 Uighurs defeated last Turkic Kaghan Baimei Khagan (744 - 745), and Kutlug Bilge Kaghan ordered to send his head to Chang'an, after which the Tang Emperor generously thanked him with entitling him "Supernumerary General-in-chief of Left Courageous Guard" (左骁卫员外大将军). For the next two years, the Uighur power continuously expanded, although its control did not reach the size of the Turkic Khaganate.
He died in 747 and left his son Tay Bilge Tutuq as heir to throne, however his other son Bayanchur Khan was killed him and usurped the throne. He had another son - Tun Bagha Tarkhan who later rose to be a khagan as well.
At first he proclaimed himself as Tokuz Oghuz khagan (Chinese: 九姓可汗; literally: 'Khagan of Nine Tribes'). Nine tribes included Dokuz Oghuz (nine Oghuz tribes), which were the Khaganal clan Yaglakar (simplified Chinese: 药罗葛; traditional Chinese: 藥羅葛; pinyin: Yàoluógé) and eight Uighur tribes known in Chinese rendering:
- Huduoge 胡咄葛
- Guluowu 啒罗勿
- Mogexiqi 貊歌息讫
- A-Wudi 阿勿嘀
- Gesa 葛萨
- Huwasu 斛嗢素
- Yaowuge 藥勿葛
- Xiyawu 奚牙勿
According to Edwin Pulleybank six Tiele tribes in the confederation - Bukut (僕固), Hun (渾), Bayegu (拔野古), Tongren (同羅), Syge (思結) and Qibi (契苾) had an equal status with the Uighurs (迴紇); the reduced Basmyls numbered eight tribes, and Karluks had three tribes called Uch-Karkuk (Three Karkuks). However, according to Haneda Toru, Dokuz Oghuz was included in Uighurs. Eleven tribes of the Basmyls and Karluks had a lower status, and were staged as vanguard of the Uighur army. Later the Abusi (阿布思) and Gulunwugu (骨崙屋骨) were also added.