Joseph Thomas McGucken (March 13, 1902 – October 6, 1983) was an American clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Sacramento (1957–62) and Archbishop of San Francisco (1962-77).
Joseph McGucken was born in Los Angeles, California, to Joseph A. and Mary Agnes (née Flynn) McGucken. He attended Polytechnic High School in his native city. He studied engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles for two years before beginning his studies for the priesthood at St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo Park. He continued his studies at the Pontifical North American College in Rome, from where he obtained a Doctor of Divinity degree in 1928. While in Rome, he was ordained a priest on January 15, 1928.
Following his return to Los Angeles, he served as secretary to Archbishop John Joseph Cantwell from 1929 to 1938. He was named a papal chamberlain by Pope Pius XI in 1937, and served as chancellor of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles from 1938 to 1948. He was raised by Pope Pius XII to the rank of domestic prelate in 1939. On February 4, 1941, McGucken was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles and Titular Bishop of Sanavus by Pope Pius XII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following March 19 from Archbishop Cantwell, with Bishops Daniel James Gercke and Philip George Scher serving as co-consecrators. In addition to his episcopal duties, he served as pastor at St. Andrew's Church in Pasadena (1944–55) and vicar general of the archdiocese (1948–55).
After 27 years as a priest and bishop in Los Angeles, he was transferred by Pope Pius XII to Sacramento, California in October 1955 to serve as Coadjutor Bishop of Sacramento. The St. Andrew's parish gave Bishop McGucken a gala farewell celebration at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium, with a performance by Dennis Day, several choirs, and an Army color guard. Bishop of Sacramento Robert John Armstrong died January 14, 1957. Pope Pius XII appointed Joseph T. McGucken Bishop of Sacramento. His episcopate in Sacramento lasted until 1962, and in his five years as Bishop, he authorized, built or approved for development nine parishes, three high schools, 33 new church buildings and one minor seminary.
After the 1961 death of Archbishop John J. Mitty, Pope John XXIII divided the Archdiocese of San Francisco and in early 1962 created the suffragan sees of Oakland, Stockton and Santa Rosa.
McGucken's former classmate from the Pontifical North American College, Floyd Lawrence Begin the auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Cleveland, Ohio, was named by Pope John XXIII, the first bishop of Oakland. Auxiliary bishop of San Francisco Hugh A. Donohoe was appointed by John XXIII, first Bishop of Stockton. Chancellor of the Archdiocese of San Francisco, Monsignor Leo T. Maher was elevated to episcopal rank by John XXIII, then, appointed the first bishop of Santa Rosa.
In February 1962, McGucken was appointed Archbishop of San Francisco; he was installed on April 3, 1962. He served 15 years as the Archbishop of San Francisco, retiring in 1977. During his first year as Archbishop, the existing St. Mary's Cathedral, built in 1891, was destroyed by fire. Archbishop McGucken gathered his consultors to begin the process of planning and constructing a new cathedral.
Architectural critic Allen Temko advocated a bold, new cathedral that would reflect San Francisco's status as a major international urban center. Archbishop McGucken added two internationally known architects to his team, Italian-born Pietro Belluschi, Dean of the School of Architecture of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who was placed in charge of designs, and Pier-Luigi Nervi, an engineering genius from Rome, who took over structural concerns. Archbishop McGucken was in Rome for the Second Vatican Council while the new cathedral was designed.
The strikingly modern design which was presented was met with high praise and has been called the "first cathedral truly of our time and in harmony with the liturgical reforms of the Council." Some gave the new cathedral the nicknames, "Our Lady of Maytag" or "McGucken's Maytag" due to the structure's striking resemblance to a washing machine agitator.
In 1966, McGucken publicly voiced his support for the efforts of Cesar Chávez to organize farmworkers in California's vineyards, leading one vineyard spokesman to warn that "the Church leaders had better start looking for other financial means to carry out their radical theories."
McGucken retired in 1977 and assumed the title of Archbishop Emeritus and died in October 1983. He is buried in the Archbishops' Crypt at Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma, California.
|Catholic Church titles|
|Preceded by |
John Joseph Mitty
|Archbishop of San Francisco |
|Succeeded by |
John R. Quinn
|Preceded by |
Robert John Armstrong
|Bishop of Sacramento |
|Succeeded by |
Alden John Bell