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Joseph Johann Littrow

Joseph Johann Littrow

Austrian astronomer
Joseph Johann Littrow
The basics

Quick Facts

Intro Austrian astronomer
Was Astronomer Professor Educator
From Austria Holy Roman Empire
Type Academia Science
Gender male
Birth 13 March 1781, Horšovský Týn, Czech Republic
Death 30 November 1840, Vienna, Austria (aged 59 years)
Star sign PiscesPisces
The details

Biography

Joseph Johann von Littrow (13 March 1781, Horšovský Týn (German: Bischofteinitz) – 30 November 1840, Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer. In 1837, he was ennobled with the title Joseph Johann Edler von Littrow. He was the father of Karl Ludwig Edler von Littrow and the mentor of the mathematician Nikolai Brashman. His work took him to Russia for a time, which is where his son who succeeded him was born.

He became director of the Vienna Observatory in 1819. He served in this position until his death in 1840. He created the only conformal retroazimuthal map projection, which is known as the Littrow projection.

Von Littrow is known for inventions in optics, including the Littrow prism, as well as the Littrow mount or Littrow configuration, which is a common way of orienting a blazed diffraction grating in a spectrometer or monochromator for high-throughput performance.

Von Littrow is often associated with a proposal to dig a large circular canal in the Sahara desert and fill it with burning kerosene, thus communicating the fact of human intelligence to aliens who may be observing earth. However, Von Littrow's connection with this scheme may be apocryphal.

The crater Littrow on the Moon is named in his honor.

He is the great-great-great-grandfather of Roman Catholic Cardinal Christoph Schönborn.

Timeline

  • 1799 Entered Charles University
  • 1802 Graduated in jurisprudence and theology
  • 1803 Became the private tutor of count J. Renard in Silesia
  • 1807 Appointed professor of astronomy Krakau University
  • 1810 Established the observatory at Kazan University
  • 1816 Became co-director of the observatory at Ofen (Buda)
  • 1819 Appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna and became director of the first university observatory Vienna, which he reorganized completely
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article on 22 Mar 2020. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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Reference sources
References
https://www.genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=12540
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/L/Littrow.html
http://contentdm.lindahall.org/u?/star_atlas,7115
http://www.atlascoelestis.com/19.htm
https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb16060645v
https://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb16060645v
https://d-nb.info/gnd/117085405
http://isni.org/isni/0000000121383862
https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n86854040
https://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=12540
https://aleph.nkp.cz/F/?func=find-c&local_base=aut&ccl_term=ica=xx0002649&CON_LNG=ENG
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