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John I Albert

John I Albert

King of Poland
John I Albert
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Biography

John I Albert (Polish: Jan I Olbracht; 27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).

Early life and succession

John was the third son of Casimir IV, King of Poland, and Elisabeth, daughter of the elected king of Germany, King Albert of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, who died when she was two years old. As the granddaughter of the late Emperor Sigismund, she was raised by Emperor Frederick III. As crown prince, John distinguished himself by his brilliant victory over the Tatars at Kopystrzyń (1487). In 1490, the Hungarian nobility proclaimed John King of Hungary at the Rákos diet. He was, however, defeated by his brother, King Vladislaus II of Hungary. In 1492, John succeeded his father as King of Poland thanks to the key intervention of his brother Friedrich Jagiellon, archbishop of Kraków and archbishop of Gniezno. Friedrich achieved the coronation of John. However, losses of revenue due to the secession of Lithuania placed John at the mercy of the Polish sejmiks, or local diets, where the szlachta, or local nobles, made their subsidies dependent on the king's subservience.

Plans against the Turks

John desired to pose as the champion of Christendom against the Ottoman Turks. Circumstances seemed, moreover, to favor him. In his brother Ladislaus, who as King of Hungary and Bohemia possessed a dominant influence in central Europe, he found a counterpoise to the machinations of Emperor Maximilian I, who in 1492 had concluded an alliance against him with Ivan III of Muscovy. As suzerain of Moldavia, John was favorably situated for attacking the Turks. At the conference of Leutschau (1494), the details of the expedition were arranged between the kings of Poland and Hungary and Elector John Cicero of Brandenburg, with the co-operation of Stephen III of Moldavia, princeof Moldavia, who had appealed to John for assistance.

In the course of 1496 John collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland with great difficulty, but the Poles entered Moldavia not as friends but as foes, and after the abortive siege of Suceava were compelled to retreat following defeat at the Battle of the Cosmin Forest. The insubordination of the szlachta seems to have been one cause of this disgraceful collapse, for John after his return confiscated hundreds of their estates.

Issues with Teutonic Knights and death

When the new Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Friedrich Wettin von Sachsen, refused to render homage to the Polish crown, John compelled him to do so. His intention to still further humiliate the Teutonic Order was stymied by his sudden death in 1501.

Ancestry

8. Algirdas, King of Lithuania
8. Algirdas, King of Lithuania
4. Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland
9. Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver
2. Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland
10. Andrew Ivanovich, Prince of Halshany
5. Sophia of Halshany
11. Alexandra Dimitrijevna of Drutsk
1. John I Albert Jagiellon, King of Poland
12. Albert IV, Duke of Austria
6. Albert II of Germany
13. Johanna Sophia of Bavaria
3. Elizabeth of Austria
14. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
7. Elisabeth of Bohemia
15. Barbara of Celje
8. Algirdas, King of Lithuania
4. Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland
9. Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver
2. Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland
10. Andrew Ivanovich, Prince of Halshany
5. Sophia of Halshany
11. Alexandra Dimitrijevna of Drutsk
1. John I Albert Jagiellon, King of Poland
12. Albert IV, Duke of Austria
6. Albert II of Germany
13. Johanna Sophia of Bavaria
3. Elizabeth of Austria
14. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
7. Elisabeth of Bohemia
15. Barbara of Celje
4. Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland
9. Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver
2. Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland
10. Andrew Ivanovich, Prince of Halshany
5. Sophia of Halshany
11. Alexandra Dimitrijevna of Drutsk
1. John I Albert Jagiellon, King of Poland
12. Albert IV, Duke of Austria
6. Albert II of Germany
13. Johanna Sophia of Bavaria
3. Elizabeth of Austria
14. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
7. Elisabeth of Bohemia
15. Barbara of Celje
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article on 08 Mar 2020. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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Reference sources
References
https://d-nb.info/gnd/118800531
http://isni.org/isni/0000000103277142
https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n81149085
https://aleph.nkp.cz/F/?func=find-c&local_base=aut&ccl_term=ica=jn20010525175&CON_LNG=ENG
https://viaf.org/viaf/77112077
https://www.worldcat.org/identities/containsVIAFID/77112077
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