|Intro||Qing dynasty emperor|
|Birth||13 November 1760, Old Summer Palace, Beijing, People's Republic of China|
|Death||2 September 1820, Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples, Chengde, Hebei, People's Republic of China (aged 59 years)|
The Jiaqing Emperor (Chinese: 嘉慶帝; pinyin: Jiāqìng Dì; Wade–Giles: Chia1-ch'ing4 Ti4; Mongolian: sayishiyaltu yirugertu khaan, 13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Aisin Gioro Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.
Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.
Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.
The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").
Accession to the throne
In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 60 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" (Chinese: 嘉慶; Manchu: ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ saicungga fengšen) in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication.
After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates.
At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796–1804) and Miao (1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined.
Court intrigues and incidents
Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice – in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.
The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to Việt Nam. Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.
Opposition to Christianity
The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys.
The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.
|Title / Posthumous title||Name||Born||Died||Father||Notes|
|2 October 1760||5 March 1797||Horchingo (和爾經額) of the Hitara clan||Married Yongyan in 1774 and became his primary consort;
Became Empress in 1796
|1776||1850||Gong'ala (恭阿拉) of the Niohuru clan||Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Became a Noble Consort after the Jiaqing Emperor's coronation;
Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort after the death of Empress Xiaoshurui;
Promoted to Empress in 1801;
Became Empress Dowager Gongci (恭慈皇太后) in 1820
|Imperial Noble Consort Heyu
|9 January 1761||27 April 1834||Liu Fuming (劉福明)||Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Became Consort Xian (諴妃) in 1796;
Promoted to Noble Consort Xian (諴貴妃) in 1808;
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi (皇考諴禧皇貴妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun
|1787||23 April 1860||Shanqing (善慶) of the Niohuru clan||Started out as Noble Lady Ru (如貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ru (如嬪) in 1805;
Promoted to Consort Ru (如妃) in 1810;
Promoted to Dowager Noble Consort Ru (皇考如貴妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor;
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (皇考如皇貴妃) in 1846 by the Daoguang Emperor;
Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (皇祖如皇貴太妃) in 1850 by the Xianfeng Emperor
|unknown||unknown||Hafeng'a (哈豐阿) of the Wanyan clan||Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
|unknown||1804||Hou Taozhu (侯討住)||Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Became Imperial Concubine Ying (瑩嬪) in 1796;
Promoted to Consort Hua in 1801
|unknown||1811||Yilibu (伊里布) of the Wanggiya clan||Started out as Noble Lady Chun (春貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ji (吉嬪) in 1801;
Promoted to Consort Zhuang in 1808
|unknown||1822||Liu Benzhi (劉本志)||Started out as Noble Lady Xin (信貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Xin (信嬪) in 1808;
Promoted to Dowager Consort Xin (皇考信妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|Imperial Concubine Xun
|unknown||unknown||Shen Yonghe (沈永和)||Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
|Imperial Concubine Jian
|unknown||1780||Guan Decheng (關德成)||Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
|Imperial Concubine Chun
|unknown||1819||Shitai (時泰)||Started out as Noble Lady Chun (淳貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Chun in 1801
|Imperial Concubine Rong
|unknown||1826||Liang Guangbao (梁光保)||Started out as Noble Lady Rong (榮貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine Rong (皇考榮嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|Imperial Concubine En
|unknown||unknown||Wanming (萬明) of the Uya clan||Started out as Noble Lady En (恩貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine En (皇考恩太嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|Imperial Concubine An
|1785||1837||unknown||From the Gūwalgiya clan;
Started out as Noble Lady An (安貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine An (皇考安太嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|Noble Lady Yun
|unknown||unknown||1805||unknown||Became Noble Lady Yun in 1804|
|Noble Lady Yu
|First Class Female Attendant Hui
|#||Title / Posthumous title||Name||Born||Died||Mother||Notes|
|1||Prince Mu of the Second Rank
|unnamed||4 February 1779||10 April 1780||Imperial Noble Consort Heyu||Died in infancy;
Posthumously honoured as "Prince Mu of the Second Rank" in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
|16 September 1782||26 February 1850||Empress Xiaoshurui||Made a qinwang under the title "Prince Zhi of the First Rank" (智親王) in 1813;
Enthroned on 3 October 1820;
Changed his personal name to "Minning" (旻寧) after he became Emperor
|3||Prince Dunke of the First Rank
|6 August 1795||18 January 1838||Empress Xiaoherui||Made a junwang in 1819;
Promoted to qinwang in 1820 under the title Prince Dun of the First Rank;
Demoted to junwang in 1827;
Restored as qinwang in 1828;
Demoted to junwang again in 1838 but restored as qinwang within the same year
|4||Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank
|1805||1828||Empress Xiaoherui||Made a qinwang in 1819 under the title Prince Rui of the First Rank (瑞親王)|
|5||Prince Huiduan of the First Rank
|8 March 1814||9 January 1865||Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun||Made a qinwang under the title Prince Hui of the First Rank in 1814|
|#||Title / Posthumous title||Born||Died||Mother||Spouse||Notes|
|1||unnamed||1780||1783||Imperial Concubine Jian||Died young|
|2||unnamed||1780||1783||Empress Xiaoshurui||Died young|
|3||Heshuo Princess Zhuangjing
|1781||1811||Imperial Noble Consort Heyu||Suotenamuduobuji (索特納木多布濟) of the Borjigit clan, married in 1801|
|4||Gulun Princess Zhuangjing
|1784||1811||Empress Xiaoshurui||Manibadala (瑪尼巴達喇) of the Borjigit clan, married in 1802|
|5||Heshuo Princess Hui'an
|1786||1795||Imperial Concubine Xun||Died young|
|6||unnamed||1789||1790||Consort Hua||Died young|
|7||unnamed||1793||1795||Empress Xiaoherui||Died young|
|8||unnamed||1805||1805||Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun||Died in infancy|
|9||Gulun Princess Huimin
|1811||1815||Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun||Posthumously honoured as a Gulun Princess in 1820|
Death and burial
On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor.
Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Changling (昌陵; lit. "splendid tomb") mausoleum complex.
|Ancestors of the Jiaqing Emperor|