James Buchanan Richmond (February 27, 1842 – April 30, 1910) was a nineteenth-century politician, lawyer, judge and banker from Virginia.
Born in Turkey Cove, Virginia, Richmond attended Emory and Henry College, studied law and was admitted to the bar.
He commenced practice in the circuit and county court of Lee, Scott and Wise Counties, Virginia as well as in the court of appeals in Wytheville, Virginia. He served as an orderly sergeant in the Confederate Army and later was promoted to captain of Company A of the 15th Virginia Infantry, major of the 64th Virginia Regiment and lieutenant colonel of the same regiment.
Afterwards, Richmond served in the Virginia House of Delegates in 1874 and 1875 and was elected a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1878, serving from 1879 to 1881. He was judge of Scott County, Virginia from 1886 to 1892 and was chief counsel of the South Atlantic & Ohio Railroad for a number a years. He also represented Scott County at the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1902. Richmond also engaged in banking before his death in Baltimore, Maryland on April 30, 1910. He was interred in Estil Cemetery in Gate City, Virginia.