Henry Ellsworth Barbour (March 8, 1877 – March 21, 1945) was a U.S. Representative from California.
Born in Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence County, New York, Barbour attended the public schools of his native city, the local "Free Academy" at Ogdensburg, Union College at Schenectady, New York, and the law department of George Washington University, Washington, D.C.. He was admitted to the New York bar in 1901. He moved to Fresno, California, in 1902 and engaged in the practice of law.
Barbour was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-sixth and to the six succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1919 – March 3, 1933). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1932 to the Seventy-third Congress. He resumed the practice of his profession in Fresno, California, where he died on March 21, 1945. He was interred in Belmont Memorial Park.