Heinrich Lüders (25 June 1869 in Lübeck – 7 May 1943 in Badenweiler) was a German Orientalist and Indologist known for his epigraphical analysis of the Sanskrit Turfan fragmentary manuscripts.
From 1888 to 1894 he studied at the universities of Munich and Göttingen, an afterwards worked as an assistant curator and librarian in the Indian Institute at Oxford University. In 1898 he became an associate professor at Göttingen, then five years later relocated to Rostock, where in 1905 he was named professor of Indo-European linguistics and Sanskrit. In 1909 he was appointed professor of ancient Indian languages and literature at the University of Berlin, where in 1931/32 he served as academic rector. In 1935 he retired from teaching and devoted himself entirely to research.
From 1920 to 1938 he served as secretary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. In 1932 he was recipient of the Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (Goethe Medal for Art and Science).
- Bruchstücke buddhistischer Dramen, 1911.
- Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan. Berlin 1930.
- Kātantra und Kaumāralāta. Berlin 1930.
- Philologica Indica, 1940.
- Bhārhut und die buddhistische Literatur. Leipzig 1941.
- Beobachtungen über die Sprache des buddhistischen Urkanons. (edition by Ernst Waldschmidt. Berlin 1954).
- "Mathurā Inscriptions. Unpublished papers" (edition by Klaus Ludwig Janert. Göttingen 1961).
- Kleine Schriften. (edition by Oskar von Hinüber. Wiesbaden 1973).