Dr Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer (17 December 1799 – 14 April 1874) was a German entomologist and physician. He was born, and died, in Regensburg. Herrich-Schäffer studied and collected particularly butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). He was chairman of the Regensburg Botanical Society (Regensburgischen Botanischen Gesellschaft) from 1861 to 1871, and was awarded an honorary citizenship of Regensburg in 1871.
He wrote Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa between 1843 and 1856, one of the most influential works on the higher classification of Lepidoptera of the 19th century. Many of the lepidopteran higher taxa recognized today were defined in this work for the first time. He based his classification mostly on wing venation.
Parts of his collection went to Otto Staudinger at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and M. J. Bastelberg at the Zoologische Staatssammlung München. Lots of Microlepidoptera in his collection were given to Ottmar Hofmann (1835–1900) at the Natural History Museum in London.
The author citation used for Herrich-Schäffer is Herr.-Schaeff. in botany or Herrich-Schäffer in zoology.