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Glauber Rocha

Glauber Rocha Brazilian film director, actor and writer

Brazilian film director, actor and writer
The basics
Quick Facts
Intro Brazilian film director, actor and writer
A.K.A. Glauber de Andrade Rocha
Countries Brazil
Occupations Screenwriter Film director Actor Writer
Gender male
Birth 14 March 1939 (Vitória da Conquista)
Death 22 August 1981 (Rio de Janeiro)
Star sign PiscesPisces
Family
Spouse: Helena IgnezPaula Gaitán
Children: Eryk Rocha
Education Faculté de droit de l'université féderale da Bahia
The details
Biography

Glauber de Andrade Rocha (14 March 1939 – 22 August 1981), better known as Glauber Rocha, was a Brazilian film director, actor and screenwriter. He was a key figure of Cinema Novo and one of the most influential moviemakers of Brazilian cinema. His films Black God, White Devil and Entranced Earth are often considered to be two of the greatest achievements in Brazilian cinematic history, being selected by Abraccine as, respectively, the second and fifth best Brazilian films of all-time.

Rocha's film possess a staunch avant-garde and experimental nature, making of him a seminal figure of the new wave. His works are noted for their many political overtones, often addressing the passive-aggressive situation of the Third World, which Rocha referred to both metaphorically and objectively as "hunger" in his essay Estética da Fome (The Aesthetics of Hunger). Rocha won the Prix de la mise en scène at the 1969 Cannes Film Festival for Antonio das Mortes and the 1977 Special Jury Prize for Best Short Film for Di. Three of Rocha's films were nominated for the Palm d'Or, including Entranced Earth, which was awarded the FIPRESCI at the 1967 Cannes Film Festival and the Grand Prix of the Locarno Film Festival of the same year.

Biography

Rocha was born in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil and moved with his family to Salvador when he was only 9 years old, there studying in a well-known Presbyterian school.

During his adolescence, he developed great interest in arts, especially theatre and cinema, and even joined a drama group. He was also very active in politics, a trait that would be strongly influential in his works. A member of the Brazilian radical left, he helped start a political party in the late 1950s that called for an anti-capitalist people's revolution and, among other things, advocated the abolition of money.

By the age of 16 he started freelancing for a local newspaper and debuted as a movie reviewer. Later, he attended Law School for about two years and in 1959, after taking part in some projects as assistant, he finally directed his first short, "Pátio". After gaining some recognition in Bahia for his critical and artistic work, Rocha decided to quit college and pursue a journalistic career, as well as being a film-maker.

He is famous for his film trilogy, made up of Black God, White Devil (1964) - perhaps his most acclaimed movie, nominated for the Golden Palm - Entranced Earth (1967) and Antonio das Mortes (1969), award-winning for Best Director at Cannes. His films were renowned for their strongly-expressed political themes, often combined with mysticism and folklore, but also for their particular style and photography. Rocha is regarded as one of the best Brazilian directors of all time and leader of the Cinema Novo movement, as well as a full-time polemicist. He once said "I am the Cinema Novo", paraphrasing Louis XIV's famous quote. In an interview with Le Monde, Rocha said "My Brazilian films belong to a whole period when my generation was full of wild dreams and hopes. They are full of enthusiasm, faith and militancy and were inspired by my great love of Brazil."

In 1969 he was a member of the jury at the 6th Moscow International Film Festival. In the following year, Rocha made a brief appearance in the Dziga Vertov Group film Le Vent d'Est. After refusing an invitation by Jean-Luc Godard to shoot a segment of the film, Rocha appeared as a man in a crossway pointing the direction of the political cinema, namely, the Cinema Novo.

In 1971, during the Brazilian military dictatorial regime, he left the country to a voluntary exile, dwelling in many places, such as Spain, Chile and on the Portuguese Riviera. He never completely returned home until his last days, when he was transferred from Lisbon, where he had been receiving medical treatment for a lung infection, to Rio de Janeiro. Rocha resisted in hospital for few days, but ultimately died on August 22, 1981, at the age of 42.

He had been married three times and had five children.

Filmography

Key
dagger Indicates a documentary double-dagger Indicates a short film
List of films directed by Glauber Rocha
Year Original title English release title(s) Language(s) Notes
1958 Cruz na Praça double-dagger Unfinished silent short film. Lost.
1959 Pátio double-dagger
1962 Barravento Barravento / The Turning Wind Portuguese
1964 Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol Black God, White Devil Portuguese
1965 Amazonas, Amazonas dagger Portuguese Short documentary on the Amazonas state in Brazil.
1966 Maranhão 66 dagger Portuguese Short documentary on José Sarney's inaugural address as governor of Maranhão state in Brazil and its poor people's harsh life conditions.
1967 Terra em Transe Anguished Land / Land Entranced / Land in Anguish / Entranced Earth Portuguese
1968 1968 dagger Portuguese Short documentary on the March of the One Hundred Thousand.
1969 O Dragão da Maldade Contra o Santo Guerreiro Antonio das Mortes Portuguese French-brazilian-german-american co-production
1970 Cabezas Cortadas Cutting Heads Spanish Spanish-brazilian co-production.
1970 Der Leone Have Sept Cabeças The Lion Has Seven Heads Portuguese, French, German, English Brazilian-italian-french co-production.
1973 História do Brasil dagger Portuguese Co-directed with Marcos Medeiros. Cuban-italian co-production. Documentary on the history of Brazil.
1975 Claro Italian, French, English Italian production.
1975 As Armas e o Povo dagger Portuguese Co-directed with Alberto Seixas Santos, António da Cunha Telles, Eduardo Geada, José de Sá Caetano and José Fonseca e Costa. Portuguese production. Documentary on the 1974 Carnation Revolution.
1977 Di dagger Portuguese Also known as Di Cavalcanti and Di-Glauber. Short documentary on Di Cavalcanti during his wake and burial.
1977 Jorge Amado no Cinema dagger Portuguese Also known as Jorjamado and Jorjamado no Cinema. Short documentary on Jorge Amado.
1980 A Idade da Terra The Age of the Earth Portuguese
1982 Câncer Portuguese Filmed between 1968-1972.
2015 A Vida É Estranha dagger Portuguese Co-directed with Mossa Bildner. Filmed in 1973. Short documentary on Rocha and Bildner's trip to Essaouira city in Morocco.

Quotations

On art:

  • "Art is not only talent, but mainly courage"
  • "Art is as hard as love"
  • "Every artist should be crazy and ambitious"
  • "The artist's goal is to outrage"
  • "The camera is an object that lies"
  • "Cinema Novo is the creative synthesis of Brazilian international popular cinema."
  • "Cinema Novo stood with the Brazilian utopia. Whether it is ugly, irregular, dirty, confusing and chaotic, it is, on the other hand, beautiful, shining and revolutionary."

On politics:

  • "The revolutionary truth lies within the minorities"
  • "Dreaming is the only right one cannot forbid"
  • "The State is stronger than the poet"
  • "Stronger than anything is the people's power"
  • "This country needs poets"

On himself:

  • "I'm a single peasant from Vitória da Conquista"
  • "I'm very famous and pretty poor"
  • "You're all misunderstanding my madness!"
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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Sources
References
http://catalogo.bne.es/uhtbin/authoritybrowse.cgi?action=display&authority_id=XX1091883
http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11968431d
http://isni.org/isni/0000000110281764
http://socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu/ark:/99166/w6334992
http://www.contracampo.com.br/27/frames.htm
http://www.diagonalthoughts.com/?p=2020
http://www.moscowfilmfestival.ru/miff34/eng/archives/?year=1969
http://www.sidneyrezende.com/sec_livros_view.php?page=3&release=1
http://www.soundsandcolours.com/articles/brazil/literary-artistic-and-political-the-films-of-glauber-rocha/
https://abraccine.org/2015/11/27/abraccine-organiza-ranking-dos-100-melhores-filmes-brasileiros/
https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11968431d
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