Giacomo Pylarini (Jacob) (1659–1718) was a Venetian physician and consul for the republic of Venice in Smyrna who in 1701 on the children of the English ambassador to Constantinople, gave the first smallpox inoculation outside of Asia. This early immunization effort was called "variolation".
He studied law and then physic at Padua before receiving his degree of MD. He traveled to different parts of Asia and Africa and practised both at Smyrna and Constantinople. In Moscow he was appointed physician to the Russian Tsar Peter the Great.
He returned to Smyrna for the second time and resided there as the Venetian Consul as well as practising physician.