|Intro||Ming dynasty person CBDB = 204922|
Feng Shan or feng-shan (Chinese: 封禪), also referred to as the Feng and Shan sacrifices, was an official rite offered by the Son of Heaven (kings of Zhou and later emperors of China) to pay homage to heaven and earth. The sacrifices were usually offered at Mount Tai, the highest peak in the area, and nearby Mount Liangfu. The emperor would pay homage to heaven (on the summit) and earth (at the foot of the mountain) in the Feng (Chinese: 封; pinyin: Fēng) and Shan (Chinese: 禪; pinyin: Shàn) sacrifices respectively. Completing Feng Shan allowed the emperor to receive the mandate of heaven.
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, Feng involved building altars out of soil at the peak of Mt. Tai and proclaiming the merits and legitimacy of the emperor to god of heaven. Shan involved clearing land at the foot of the mountain to show respect for the god of earth.
Worship at Mount Tai began in prehistoric times and continued through the Zhou dynasty. During the Warring States Period, Mount Tai was located on the border between Qi and Lu, and leaders from both nations would carry out sacrifices at the mountain. In 219 BC, Qin Shihuang carried out what would come to be considered the first Feng and Shan sacrifices in celebration of uniting China. The second emperor to carry out the sacrifices was Emperor Wu of Han. Emperor Gaozong of Tang carried out the Feng and Shan sacrifices more times than any other emperor in Chinese history. Japan, India, the Persian court in exile, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, the Turks, Khotan, the Khmer, and the Umayyad Caliphate all had representatives attending the Feng and Shan sacrifices held by Emperor Gaozong of Tang in 666 at Mount Tai. Wu Zetian carried out Feng and Shan sacrifices at Mount Song. The last emperor to carry out Feng and Shan sacrifices was Emperor Zhenzong of the Song dynasty. Later, emperors in the Qing dynasty would perform similar rites at Mount Tai.