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Ernest, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels

Ernest, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels

Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels and later of Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg
The basics
Quick Facts
Intro Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels and later of Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg
Gender male
Birth 18 December 1623 (Kassel, Kassel Government Region, Hesse, Germany)
Death 12 May 1693 (Cologne, Cologne Government Region, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)
Mother: Countess Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg
Father: MauriceLandgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Siblings: franzingxxx klindix FrederickLandgrave of Hesse-EschwegeOttoLandgrave of Hesse-KasselWilliam VLandgrave of Hesse-KasselHerman IVLandgrave of Hesse-RotenburgElizabeth of Hesse-KasselDuchess of MecklenburgAgnes of Hesse-KasselMagdalene von Hessen-KasselLandgravine Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
Children: WilliamLandgrave of Hesse-RotenburgCharlesLandgrave of Hesse-Wanfried
The details

Maurice of Hesse-Kassel (German: Moritz) (25 May 1572 – 15 March 1632), also called Maurice the Learned, was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627.


Maurice was born in Kassel as the son of William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and of his wife Sabine of Württemberg.

Although Maurice had been raised in the Lutheran faith, he converted to Calvinism in 1605. On the principle Cuius regio eius religio, Maurice's subjects were also required to convert to Calvinism. Maurice's conversion was controversial since the Peace of Augsburg had only settled religious matters betweens Roman Catholics and Lutherans and had not considered Calvinists. Maurice tried to introduce Calvinism to the lands which he had inherited from the extinct Hesse-Marburg branch of his family. Such a change of faith was contrary to the inheritance rules, and resulted in an ongoing conflict with the Hesse-Darmstadt branch. It also brought him into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias.

English strolling players ('Die Englische Comoedianten') were frequent visitors to, and performers in, towns and cities in Germany and other European countries, including Kassel, during the 16th and 17th centuries. Landgraf Moritz (to use his German nomenclature) was a great supporter of the performing arts and even built the first permanent theatre in Germany, named the Ottoneum, in 1605. This building still exists today but as a Natural History Museum.

Maurice's actions (though not necessarily the Ottoneum) ruined Hesse-Kassel financially. In 1627 he abdicated in favour of his son William V. Five years later he died in Eschwege. He was not only a serious musician but an expert composer (a Pavane of his, for the lute, has several times been recorded by both lutenists and guitarists). The leading musical figures whom he supported included Heinrich Schütz and John Dowland.

Marriages and issue

On 23 September 1593, Maurice married Agnes of Solms-Laubach (7 January 1578 - 23 November 1602). They had six children:

  • Otto, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Kassel (b. Kassel, 24 December 1594 – Hersfeld, 7 August 1617).
  • Elisabeth (b. Kassel, 24 March 1596 - d. Güstrow, 16 December 1625), married John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg.
  • Stillborn child (24 January 1597).
  • Stillborn child (August 1599).
  • Maurice (b. Kassel, 14 July 1600 – d. Kassel, 11 August 1612).
  • William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (b. Kassel, 13 February 1602 – d. Leer, Ostfriesland, 21 September 1637).

On 22 May 1603, Maurice married Countess Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg (3 September 1587 – 15 February 1643). They had fourteen children:

  • Philipp (b. Kassel, 26 September 1604 - killed in battle, Lutter am Barenberge, 17 June 1626).
  • Agnes (b. Kassel 14 May 1606 - d. Dessau, 28.5.1650), married John Casimir, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.
  • Herman (b. Kassel, 15 August 1607 - d. Rotenburg, 25 March 1658), inherited Rotenburg.
  • Juliane (b. Marburg, 7 October 1608 - d. Kassel, 11 December 1628).
  • Sabine (b. Kassel, 5 July 1610 - d. Kassel, 21 May 1620).
  • Magdalene (b. Kassel, 25 August 1611 - d. Bedburg, 12 February 1671), married Erich Adolf, Count of Salm-Reifferscheid.
  • Maurice (b. Kassel, 13 June 1614 - d. Kassel, 16 February 1633).
  • Sophie (b. Kassel, 12 September 1615 - d. Bückeburg, 22 November 1670), married Philip I, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe.
  • Frederick (b. Kassel, 9 May 1617 - killed in battle, Kosten, 24 September 1655), inherited Eschwege.
  • Christian (b. Kassel, 5 February 1622 - d. Bückeburg, 14 November 1640), Swedish colonel, died after an altercation with General Johan Banér and some other officers; he was probably poisoned.
  • Ernest (b. Kassel, 17 December 1623 - d. Köln, 12 May 1693), inherited Rheinfels.
  • Christine (b. Kassel, 9 July 1625 - d. Kassel, 25 July 1626).
  • Philipp (b. Kassel, 28 September 1626 - d. Rotenburg, 8 July 1629).
  • Elisabeth (b. Kassel, 23 October 1628 - d. Kassel, 10 February 1633).


16. Louis II, Landgrave of Lower Hesse
8. William II, Landgrave of Hesse
17. Mechthild of Württemberg (bg)
4. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
18. Magnus II, Duke of Mecklenburg
9. Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
19. Sophia of Pomerania-Stettin
2. William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
20. Albert III, Duke of Saxony
10. George, Duke of Saxony
21. Sidonie of Poděbrady
5. Christine of Saxony
22. Casimir IV Jagiellon
11. Barbara Jagiellon
23. Elisabeth of Austria
1. Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
24. Henry, Count of Württemberg
12. Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg
25. Elisabeth of Zweibrücken-Bitsch
6. Christoph, Duke of Württemberg
26. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria
13. Sabina of Bavaria
27. Kunigunde of Austria
3. Sabine of Württemberg
28. Frederick I of Brandenburg-Ansbach
14. Georg of Brandenburg-Ansbach
29. Sophia of Poland
7. Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach
30. Charles I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels
15. Hedwig of Münsterberg-Oels
31. Anna of Sagan
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