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Doris Hart

Doris Hart American tennis player

American tennis player
The basics
Quick Facts
Intro American tennis player
A.K.A. Doris Jane Hart
Was Athlete Tennis player Autobiographer
From United States of America
Type Literature Sports
Gender female
Birth 20 June 1925, St. Louis, USA
Death 29 May 2015, Coral Gables, USA (aged 90 years)
Star sign GeminiGemini
The details
Biography

Doris Hart (June 20, 1925 – May 29, 2015) was a tennis player from the United States who was active in the 1940s and first half of the 1950s. She was ranked World No. 1 in 1951. She was the fourth player, and second woman, to win a Career Grand Slam in singles. She was the first of only three players (all women) to complete the career "Boxed Set" of Grand Slam titles, which is winning at least one title in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at all four Grand Slam events. Only Margaret Smith Court and she achieved this during the amateur era of the sport.

Tennis career

Hart reached 67 Grand Slam finals and won 35 titles, tying with Louise Brough for sixth on the all-time list (behind Margaret Smith Court (64), Martina Navratilova (59), Billie Jean King (39), Serena Williams (39), and Margaret Osborne duPont (37)). Six of her titles were in women's singles, 14 in women's doubles, and 15 in mixed doubles. Hart is one of only three players, all women, to have a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles — every possible title (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) from all four Grand Slam tournaments. The others are Margaret Smith Court and Martina Navratilova. Hart was the first person to accomplish this feat.

As a child, Hart suffered from osteomyelitis, which resulted in a permanently impaired right leg. She started playing tennis when she was 10 years old, greatly encouraged by her brother Bud.

After losing seven Grand Slam finals from 1942 through 1946, Hart won her first Grand Slam title at the 1947 Wimbledon Championships in women's doubles. At that point, she was still a student at the University of Miami.

Her first Grand Slam singles title came at the 1949 Australian National Championships, where she was the only non-Australian player in the draw. She also won singles titles at the 1950 and 1952 French International Championships, the 1951 Wimbledon Championships (routing doubles partner Shirley Fry in the final), and the 1954 and 1955 U. S. National Championships. The 1955 U. S. singles final was the last Grand Slam singles match of her career.

Hart won the singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles titles at the 1951 Wimbledon Championships, playing the finals of all three events on the same day (July 7, 1951). She also won the "triple crown" at the 1952 French International Championships and the 1954 U. S. National Championships.

During her Wightman Cup career from 1946 through 1955, Hart was a perfect 14–0 in singles matches and 8–1 in doubles matches.

Hart did not lose a Grand Slam women's doubles match from the 1951 French International Championships through the semifinals of the 1954 Wimbledon Championships, 43 matches in total, although she skipped 4 Grand Slam tournaments during this period. She also did not lose a mixed doubles match at the 13 Grand Slam tournaments she played from the 1951 French International Championships through the 1955 U. S. National Championships. She (and partner Stan Smith) finally lost in the third round of the 1968 Wimbledon Championships to Frew McMillan and Annette Van Zyl Du Plooy 6-3, 12-10.

According to John Olliff and Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Hart was ranked in the world top ten from 1946 through 1955 (no rankings issued from 1940 through 1945), reaching a career high of World No. 1 in those rankings in 1951. Hart was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1942 through 1955. She was the top ranked U. S. player in 1954 and 1955.

Hart never played Helen Wills Moody, Helen Jacobs, Alice Marble, Angela Mortimer, Ann Haydon Jones, Maria Bueno, or Darlene Hard in a Grand Slam singles tournament. Her win-loss record against her major rivals in those tournaments was as follows:

Hart retired from the tour in late 1955 to become a tennis teaching professional. Her autobiography, Tennis with Hart, was published that year.

She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1969.

She died on May 29, 2015, at her home in Coral Gables, Florida, aged 89.

Grand Slam record

  • Australian Championships (4)
    • Singles champion: 1949
    • Singles runner-up: 1950
    • Women's Doubles champion: 1950
    • Women's Doubles runner-up: 1949
    • Mixed Doubles champion (2): 1949, 1950
  • French Championships (10)
    • Singles champion (2): 1950, 1952
    • Singles runner-up (3): 1947, 1951, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (5): 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (2): 1946, 1947
    • Mixed Doubles champion (3): 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up: 1948
  • Wimbledon (10)
    • Singles champion: 1951
    • Singles runner-up (3): 1947, 1948, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (4): 1947, 1951, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (4): 1946, 1948, 1950, 1954
    • Mixed Doubles champion (5): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up: 1948
  • U.S. Championships (11)
    • Singles champion (2): 1954, 1955
    • Singles runner-up (5): 1946, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953
    • Women's Doubles champion (4): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954
    • Women's Doubles runner-up (9): 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles champion (5): 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
    • Mixed Doubles runner-up (2): 1945, 1950

Grand Slam finals

Singles (6 titles, 12 runners-up)

Loss Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Loss 1946 U. S. National Championships Grass Pauline Betz 9–11, 3–6
Loss 1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass Margaret Osborne duPont 2–6, 4–6
Loss 1947 French International Championships Clay Patricia Canning Todd 3–6, 6–3, 4–6
Loss 1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass Louise Brough 3–6, 6–8
Win 1949 Australian National Championships Grass Nancye Wynne Bolton 6–3, 6–4
Loss 1949 U. S. National Championships Grass Margaret Osborne duPont 3–6, 1–6
Loss 1950 Australian National Championships Grass Louise Brough 4–6, 6–3, 4–6
Win 1950 French International Championships Clay Patricia Canning Todd 6–4, 4–6, 6–2
Loss 1950 U. S. National Championships Grass Margaret Osborne duPont 4–6, 3–6
Loss 1951 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry 3–6, 6–3, 3–6
Win 1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry 6–1, 6–0
Win 1952 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry 6–4, 6–4
Loss 1952 U. S. National Championships Grass Maureen Connolly 3–6, 5–7
Loss 1953 French International Championships Clay Maureen Connolly 2–6, 4–6
Loss 1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass Maureen Connolly 6–8, 5–7
Loss 1953 U. S. National Championships Grass Maureen Connolly 2–6, 4–6
Win 1954 U. S. National Championships Grass Louise Brough 6–8, 6–1, 8–6
Win 1955 U. S. National Championships Grass Patricia Ward 6–4, 6–2

Women's doubles (14 titles, 16 runner-ups)

Loss Year Championship Surface Partner Opponents Score
Loss 1942 U. S. National Championships Grass Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 5–7, 0–6
Loss 1943 U. S. National Championships Grass Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 3–6
Loss 1944 U. S. National Championships Grass Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 4–6, 3–6
Loss 1945 U. S. National Championships Grass Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 3–6
Loss 1946 Wimbledon Championships Grass Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–2, 3–6
Loss 1946 French International Championships Clay Pauline Betz Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 6–0, 1–6
Win 1947 Wimbledon Championships Grass Patricia Canning Todd Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–4, 7–5
Loss 1947 French International Championships Clay Patricia Canning Todd Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
5–7, 2–6
Loss 1947 U. S. National Championships Grass Patricia Canning Todd Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
7–5, 3–6, 5–7
Win 1948 French International Championships Clay Patricia Canning Todd Mary Arnold Prentiss
Shirley Fry
6–4, 6–2
Loss 1948 Wimbledon Championships Grass Patricia Canning Todd Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 1–6
Loss 1948 U. S. National Championships Grass Patricia Canning Todd Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 10–8, 1–6
Loss 1949 Australian National Championships Grass Marie Toomey Nancye Wynne Bolton
Thelma Coyne Long
0–6, 1–6
Loss 1949 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 8–10
Win 1950 Australian National Championships Grass Louise Brough Nancye Wynne Bolton
Thelma Coyne Long
6–3, 2–6, 6–3
Win 1950 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
1–6, 7–5, 6–2
Loss 1950 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
4–6, 7–5, 1–6
Loss 1950 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
2–6, 3–6
Win 1951 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry Beryl Bartlett
Barbara Scofield
10–8, 6–3
Win 1951 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 13–11
Win 1951 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Nancy Chaffee
Patricia Canning Todd
6–4, 6–2
Win 1952 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry Hazel Redick-Smith
Julia Wipplinger
7–5, 6–1
Win 1952 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Maureen Connolly
8–6, 6–3
Win 1952 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Maureen Connolly
10–8, 6–4
Win 1953 French International Championships Clay Shirley Fry Maureen Connolly
Julia Sampson
6–4, 6–3
Win 1953 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry Maureen Connolly
Julia Sampson
6–0, 6–0
Win 1953 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–2, 7–9, 9–7
Loss 1954 Wimbledon Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 7–9, 1–6
Win 1954 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
6–4, 6–4
Loss 1955 U. S. National Championships Grass Shirley Fry Louise Brough
Margaret Osborne duPont
3–6, 6–1, 3–6

Grand Slam tournament timelines

Key
W  F  SF QF #R RR Q# A NH
(W) Won; (F) finalist; (SF) semifinalist; (QF) quarterfinalist; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; (RR) round-robin stage; (Q#) qualification round; (A) absent; (NH) not held. SR=strike rate (events won/competed)

Singles

Tournament 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Career SR Win-Loss
Australian National Championships A NH NH NH NH NH A A A W F A A A A A 1 / 2 8-1
French International Championships NH R R R R A QF F SF A W F W F A A 2 / 7 28-5
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH NH NH QF F F A SF W QF F SF SF 1 / 9 43-8
U. S. National Championships 2R 1R QF SF QF SF F SF QF F F SF F F W W 2 / 16 57-13
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 0 / 3 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 3 1 / 3 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 2 6 / 34
Win-Loss 0-0 0-1 3-1 3-1 2-1 3-1 10-3 14-3 11-3 9-1 20-3 15-2 13-2 14-3 10-1 9-1 136-27

Women's doubles

Tournament 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956– 1967 1968 1969 Career SR
Australian National Championships NH NH NH NH A A A F W A A A A A A A A 1 / 2
French International Championships R R R A F F W A W W W W A A A A A 5 / 7
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH F W F A F W W W F 2R A 2R A 4 / 10
U. S. National Championships F F F F SF F F F F W W W W F A A 1R 4 / 15
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 0 / 2 2 / 4 3 / 3 3 / 3 3 / 3 1 / 2 0 / 2 0 / 0 0 / 1 0 / 1 14 / 34

Mixed doubles

Tournament 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956–1967 1968 1969 Career SR
Australian National Championships NH NH NH NH A A A W W A A A A A A A A 2 / 2
French International Championships R R R A 2R A F A 3R W W W A A A A A 3 / 6
Wimbledon Championships NH NH NH NH 4R SF F A SF W W W W W A 3R A 5 / 10
U. S. National Championships 2R 1R QF F QF 1R SF QF F W W W W W A A QF 5 / 15
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 3 0 / 2 0 / 3 1 / 2 1 / 4 3 / 3 3 / 3 3 / 3 2 / 2 2 / 2 0 / 0 0 / 1 0 / 1 15 / 33

R = tournament restricted to French nationals and held under German occupation.
In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon.
Hart did not play at this event. Her opponent got a walkover.

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Reference sources
References
https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/01/sports/tennis/doris-hart-tennis-standout-despite-physical-limitations-dies-at-89.html?_r=0
https://archive.is/20150531103509/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/sports/grand-slam-tennis-champ-doris-hart-of-us-dies-at-89/article24714099/
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/sports/grand-slam-tennis-champ-doris-hart-of-us-dies-at-89/article24714099/
https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2015/may/31/doris-hart
https://books.google.com/books?id=FeD7AAAAQBAJ&pg=PA56
http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/wireStory/tennis-career-grand-slam-winner-doris-hart-dies-31416048
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/11643656/Doris-Hart-tennis-champion-obituary.html
https://www.si.com/tennis/2015/05/30/ap-ten-obit-doris-hart-1st-ld-writethru
https://www.tennisfame.com/hall-of-famers/inductees/doris-hart/
https://www.tennisfame.com/hall-of-famers/inductees/doris-hart
https://www.itftennis.com/procircuit/players/player/profile.aspx?playerid=20004847
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