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Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken German noble

German noble
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Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most learned women of her time and known as The Great Landgräfin.

Biography

Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.

She married on 12 August 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, and she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler. She founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser.

Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, and he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century; after her death, he sent an urn to Darmstadt with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir ('A woman by sex, a man by spirit').

Issue

Name Portrait Birth Death Notes
Frederick
1759 1802

Ancestry

16. Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
16. Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
8. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
17. Duchess Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
4. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
18. John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
9. Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken
19. Catherine de Rohan
2. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
20. Eberhard, Count of Rappoltstein
10. Johann Jakob, Count of Rappoltstein
21. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna of Salm-Kyrburg
5. Countess Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
22. Johann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg
11. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna Claudia of Salm-Kyrburg
23. Countess Dorothea of Solms-Laubach
1. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
24. William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
12. Gustav Adolph, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
25. Margravine Anna Amalia of Baden-Durlach
6. Louis Crato, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
26. Crato V, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
13. Countess Eleonore Claire of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
27. Countess Palatine Sophie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
3. Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
28. Philip Ernest, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
14. Henry Frederick, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
29. Countess Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnenwalde and Pouch
7. Princess Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
30. Wolfgang George I, Count of Castell-Remlingen
15. Countess Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen
31. Countess Sophie Juliana of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach
16. Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
8. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
17. Duchess Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
4. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
18. John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
9. Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken
19. Catherine de Rohan
2. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
20. Eberhard, Count of Rappoltstein
10. Johann Jakob, Count of Rappoltstein
21. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna of Salm-Kyrburg
5. Countess Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
22. Johann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg
11. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna Claudia of Salm-Kyrburg
23. Countess Dorothea of Solms-Laubach
1. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
24. William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
12. Gustav Adolph, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
25. Margravine Anna Amalia of Baden-Durlach
6. Louis Crato, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
26. Crato V, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
13. Countess Eleonore Claire of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
27. Countess Palatine Sophie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
3. Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
28. Philip Ernest, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
14. Henry Frederick, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
29. Countess Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnenwalde and Pouch
7. Princess Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
30. Wolfgang George I, Count of Castell-Remlingen
15. Countess Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen
31. Countess Sophie Juliana of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach
8. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler
17. Duchess Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
4. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
18. John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
9. Countess Palatine Magdalene Catherine of Zweibrücken
19. Catherine de Rohan
2. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
20. Eberhard, Count of Rappoltstein
10. Johann Jakob, Count of Rappoltstein
21. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna of Salm-Kyrburg
5. Countess Katharina Agathe of Rappoltstein
22. Johann Kasimir, Count of Salm-Kyrburg
11. Wild- and Rhinegravine Anna Claudia of Salm-Kyrburg
23. Countess Dorothea of Solms-Laubach
1. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
24. William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
12. Gustav Adolph, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
25. Margravine Anna Amalia of Baden-Durlach
6. Louis Crato, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
26. Crato V, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
13. Countess Eleonore Claire of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein
27. Countess Palatine Sophie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
3. Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
28. Philip Ernest, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
14. Henry Frederick, Count of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
29. Countess Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnenwalde and Pouch
7. Princess Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
30. Wolfgang George I, Count of Castell-Remlingen
15. Countess Juliana Dorothea of Castell-Remlingen
31. Countess Sophie Juliana of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach

Literature

  • Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article on 08 Mar 2020. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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Reference sources
References
https://books.google.com/books?id=AINPAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA93
http://www.thepeerage.com/p11421.htm#i114202
http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Karoline_(Landgr%C3%A4fin_von_Hessen-Darmstadt)
https://d-nb.info/gnd/118560271
http://isni.org/isni/0000000066752863
https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n86132894
http://data.bibliotheken.nl/id/thes/p126250634
https://www.idref.fr/163925828
https://viaf.org/viaf/15561402
https://www.worldcat.org/identities/containsVIAFID/15561402
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