Count Johann (Hans) Nepomuk Wilczek (German: Hans Graf Wilczek; 7 December 1837 – 27 January 1922) was an Austrian arctic explorer and patron of the arts. He was the main sponsor of the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition in 1872–74.
Born in Vienna the son of a well-off noble family, young Hans Wilczek made intensive travels and studied archaeology, art history as well as natural sciences. In 1858, he married Countess Emma Maria Emo Capodilista (1833–1924), a court lady of Archduchess Sophie. He travelled to Russia in 1863, including Crimea and the Caucasus. Then, in 1866, he enlisted in the Austro-Prussian War as a volunteer. Between 1868 and 1870 he travelled across Africa.
From 1872 to 1874, he provided for the S/X Admiral Tegetthoff research vessel and elaborate preparations of the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition, led by Julius Payer and Karl Weyprecht from 1872 to 1874. He contributed with an amount that was significantly greater than the funds contributed by the second-largest sponsor of the venture, Hungarian Count Ödon Zichy (1811–1894). Wilczek himself led a preliminary expedition to Barentsøya and the mouth of the Pechora River in order to store up depots, accompanied by the photographer Wilhelm J. Burger. In 1874, the ship's crew of the Admiral Tegethoff discovered the Franz Josef Land archipelago and named Wilczek Land and Wilczek Island in his honour.
From 1875 onwards, Count Wilczek held the title of President of the Austrian Geographical Society in order to promote the construction of weather stations in the Arctic. The Austrian polar station on Jan Mayen Island was built and equipped in 1882 fully at his own costs.
Count Wilczek was a member of the Austrian House of Lords since its creation in 1861 until 1918. As a promoter of the fine arts, he was the founder of the "Viennese Society of Art Lovers" (Gesellschaft der Wiener Kunstfreunde). He also backed the equipment of the Vienna Museum of Military History as a member of the board of trustees. From 1874 to 1906, he had Kreuzenstein Castle reconstructed according to plans designed by architect Carl Gangolf Kayser. This monumental mansion north of Vienna is now a museum that houses his extensive art collections. In 1886, Wilczek purchased Moosham Castle in the Salzburg Lungau region.
Count Wilczek died in Vienna. He is buried in the family crypt in the Kreuzenstein castle chapel. The reigning Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein is his great-great-grandson.