Barbara Uehling Charlton (June 12, 1932 – January 2, 2020) was an American educator and university administrator.
She received her undergraduate degree in psychology from Wichita State University in 1954, and a PhD in experimental psychology at Northwestern University.
She served as the 3rd chancellor and 17th chief executive officer of the University of Missouri campus in Columbia, Missouri. She was the first woman in the United States to lead a land-grant university. Before coming to Missouri, Uehling served as provost for the University of Oklahoma. After leaving the University of Missouri, she served as a Senior Visiting Fellow on the American Council of Education in Washington D.C.. She later served as Chancellor of the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Uehling died from complications of Alzheimer's disease on January 2, 2020.