|Intro||Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Wolfenbüttel|
|A.K.A.||August der Jüngere|
|Was||Writer Cryptographer Librarian Chess player Non-fiction writer|
|Field||Literature Science Sports|
|Birth||10 April 1579, Dannenberg (Elbe)|
|Death||17 September 1666, Wolfenbüttel (aged 87 years)|
Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg (10 April 1579 – 17 September 1666), called the Younger, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In the estate division of the House of Welf of 1635, he received the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Augustus was born in Dannenberg, the seventh child of Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After complicated negotiations with his family members and an intervention by Emperor Ferdinand II, it was agreed that he should inherit Wolfenbüttel, whose last ruler had died in 1634. Because of the Thirty Years' War, he could not move into his residence until 1644. Augustus instituted a number of government reforms, and founded the Bibliotheca Augusta, a large library, in Wolfenbüttel (now the Herzog August Bibliothek — "HAB").
Under the pseudonym Gustavus Selenus, he wrote a book on chess in 1616, Chess or the King's Game, and on cryptography in 1624: Cryptomenytices et Cryptographiae libri IX. The pseudonym is a cryptic reference to his name, Gustavus anagrams (with U=V) to Augustus, the surname is a play on the Greek goddess of the moon (Selene). The book on cryptography is largely based on earlier work by Trithemius.
Augustus died at Wolfenbüttel and was succeeded by his three sons.
On December 1607 he married Clara Maria of Pomerania-Barth, daughter of Bogislaw XIII, Duke of Pomerania and had two stillborn children. Clara Maria died on February 1623.
On October 1623 he married Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of Rudolph, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and had the following children:
- Henry August (1625–1627)
- Rudolph August (1627–1704), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
- married firstly, in 1650 Countess Christiane Elisabeth of Barby (1634-1681)
- married secondly, in 1681 Rosine Elisabeth Menthe (1663-1701)
- Sibylle Ursula (1629–1671)
- married in 1663 Duke Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg (1627-1698, son of Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg)
- Klara Auguste (1632–1700)
- married in 1653 Duke Frederick of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (1615-1682)
- Anton Ulrich (1633–1714), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
- married in 1656 princess Elisabeth Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (1634-1704).
Dorothea died on September 1634 and in 1635 Augustus married Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg, daughter of John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg and had two children:
- Ferdinand Albert I (1636-1687), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- married in 1667 Christine of Hesse-Eschwege (1649-1702)
- Marie Elisabeth (1638-1687)
- married firstly, in 1663 Adolf William, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach
- married secondly, in 1676 Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Coburg.
|Ancestors of Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|