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Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

Austrian archduke
The basics
About
A.K.A. Archduke Rainer the Elder
Gender male
Birth September 30, 1783 (Pisa, Province of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy)
Death January 16, 1853 (Bolzano, South Tyrol, Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy)
Family
Mother: Maria Luisa of Spain
Father: Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Siblings: Archduke Louis of AustriaFrancis I of AustriaFerdinand IIIGrand Duke of TuscanyArchduke JosephPalatine of HungaryArchduke Anton Victor of AustriaArchduke Alexander Leopold of AustriaArchduke CharlesDuke of TeschenArchduke Rudolf of AustriaArchduke John of AustriaArchduchess Maria Clementina of AustriaMaria Theresa of AustriaMaria Anna d'Asburgo-Lorena
Spouse: Princess Elisabeth of Savoy
Children: Sigismund of AustriaAdelaide of AustriaArchduke Ernest of AustriaHeinrich Anton of AustriaArchduke Leopold Ludwig of AustriaArchduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria
Authority VIAF id
The details
Biography

Rainer Joseph of Austria (30 September 1783 – 16 January 1853) was a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He was also an Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia.

Biography

Rainer was a son of Emperor Leopold II and Empress Maria Luisa, and was thus a younger brother of Emperor Franz II.

Although Rainer suffered from a mild form of epilepsy, this did not visibly interfere with his military career.

Rainer served as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia from 1818 to 1848. The position made Rainer and his wife the head of the Austrian court at Milan. Rainer politics were increasingly unpopular, the Italians resented him for their lack of political freedom and for collecting revenues with so little benefit to them.

Throughout the 1840s, the political situation worsened to such an extent that in 1847, Metternich resurrected his 1817 plans for an Italian chancellery by sending his right-hand man count Charles-Louis de Ficquelmont to Milan as acting Chancellor of Lombardy–Venetia to restore the Austrian rule while taking over Northern Italy's administration. But only a few months later, Ficquelmont was recalled to Vienna to assume the leadership of the Council of war as the Revolutions of 1848 started.

Archduke Rainer's mistakes as well as the lack of understanding between Rainer and Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky, were blamed for the disasters of the Italian Revolution of 1848.

Marriage and children

He married at Prague on 28 May 1820 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy (13 April 1800 – 25 December 1856). She was the sister of the Prince of Carignano, who would in 1831 become King of Sardinia as King Charles Albert. She was also a granddaughter of the late former Duke of the Baltic principality of Courland.

Children included:

  • Maria Karolina (6 February 1821 – 23 Jan 1844) – unmarried, no issue
  • Adelaide (3 June 1822 – 20 January 1855) – wife of Victor Emmanuel II, from 1849 king of Sardinia
  • Leopold Ludwig (6 June 1823 – 24 May 1898) – Oberkommandant der Marine ('High Commander of the Navy') from 1864 to 1868
  • Ernst Karl (8 August 1824 – 4 April 1899), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Sigismund Leopold (7 January 1826 – 15 December 1891), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Rainer Ferdinand (11 January 1827 – 27 January 1913) – Austrian Minister President 1859–61; his visit to the Hotel Greif in Wels is commemorated by a wall plaque there. Married Archduchess Maria Karoline of Austria (1825-1915). No issue.
  • Heinrich Anton (9 May 1828 – 30 November 1891), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Maximilian Karl (16 January 1830 – 16 March 1839)

The Revolution of 1848 forced Rainer and Elisabeth from the court at Milan; when the insurrection was quelled, Radetzky was named Rainer's successor as Viceroy. Although his children, except Adelheid, are buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, he and his wife are buried at the Maria Himmelfahrtskirche in Bolzano.

Through his daughter Adelaide, Rainer is an ancestor of the entire royal family of Italy which reigned from 1861 to 1946.

Ancestry

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 30 September 1783 – 11 August 1804 His Royal Highness Archduke Ranier Joseph of Austria
  • 11 August 1804 – 16 January 1853 His Imperial & Royal Highness Archduke Ranier Joseph of Austria
The contents of this page are sourced from Wikipedia article. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
References
http://books.google.com/books?id=AINPAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA109
http://isni.org/isni/0000000393780853
https://d-nb.info/gnd/118820753
https://viaf.org/viaf/288133554
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q442756
https://www.worldcat.org/identities/containsVIAFID/288133554
Biography Marriage and children Ancestry Titles, styles, honours and arms
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