|Intro||Queen Consort and Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen Consort of Germany and Archduchess of Austria|
|Birth||23 July 1503 (Buda)|
|Death||27 January 1547 (Prague)|
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (Buda, Hungary, 23 July 1503 – Prague, Bohemia, 27 January 1547), sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica, Queen of the Romans (Germany), Bohemia and Hungary as the wife of King Ferdinand I, later Holy Roman Emperor.
She was the elder child and only daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456–1516) and his third wife Anne of Foix-Candale. She was an older sister of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. Her paternal grandparents were King Casimir IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, of the Jagiellon dynasty, and Elisabeth of Austria, one of the heiresses of Bohemia, duchy of Luxembourg and duchy of Kujavia. Her maternal grandparents were Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale and Catherine de Foix, Infanta of the Kingdom of Navarre.
She was born in Buda (now Budapest). The death of Vladislaus II on 13 March 1516 left both siblings in the care of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. It was arranged that Anna marry his grandson, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, second son of Queen regnant Joanna of Castile and her late husband and co-ruler, Philip I of Castile. Anna married Ferdinand on 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria. At the time Ferdinand was governing the Habsburg hereditary lands on behalf of his older brother Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It was stipulated that Ferdinand should succeed Anne's brother in case he died without male heirs.
Her brother Louis was killed in the Battle of Mohács against Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire on 29 August 1526. This left the thrones of both Bohemia and Hungary vacant. Ferdinand claimed both kingdoms and was elected King of Bohemia on 24 October of the same year, making Anna Queen of Bohemia.
Hungary was a more difficult case. Suleiman had annexed much of its lands. Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Hungary by a group of nobles, but another faction of Hungarian nobles refused to allow a foreign ruler to hold that title and elected John Zápolya as an alternative king. The resulting conflict between the two rivals and their successors lasted until 1571. In 1531, Ferdinand's older brother Charles V recognised Ferdinand as his successor as Holy Roman Emperor, and Ferdinand was elevated to the title King of the Romans.
Anna and Ferdinand had fifteen children, all of whom were born in Bohemia or Hungary. Both of these kingdoms had suffered for centuries from premature deaths among heirs and a shortage of succession prospects. Meanwhile, Anna served as queen consort of Bohemia and as one of three living queens of Hungary until her death. She died in Prague, days after giving birth to her last daughter Joanna. In 1556, Charles V abdicated and Ferdinand succeeded as emperor, nine years after Anna's death. She is a matrilineal ancestor of Queen Victoria.
|Elisabeth||9 July 1526||15 June 1545||Married the future King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland; no issue.|
|Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor||31 July 1527||12 October 1576||Married his first cousin Maria of Spain; had issue.|
|Anna||7 July 1528||16 October/17 October 1590||Married Albert V, Duke of Bavaria; had issue.|
|Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria||14 June 1529||24 January 1595||Married Philippine Welser; had issue. Married his niece Anne Juliana Gonzaga; had issue.|
|Maria||15 May 1531||11 December 1581||Married Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg; had issue.|
|Magdalena||14 August 1532||10 September 1590||A nun.|
|Catherine||15 September 1533||28 February 1572||Married King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland; no issue.|
|Eleanor||2 November 1534||5 August 1594||Married William I, Duke of Mantua; had issue.|
|Margaret of Austria||16 February 1536||12 March 1567||A nun.|
|John||10 April 1538||20 March 1539||Died in childhood.|
|Barbara||30 April 1539||19 September 1572||Married Alfonso II d'Este; no issue.|
|Charles II, Archduke of Austria||3 June 1540||10 July 1590||Married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria; had issue (including Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor).|
|Ursula||24 July 1541||30 April 1543||Died in childhood|
|Helena||7 January 1543||5 March 1574||A nun.|
|Joanna||24 January 1547||10 April 1578||Married Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany; had issue.|
|Ancestors of Anne of Bohemia and Hungary|