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Alix, Duchess of Brittany

Alix, Duchess of Brittany

Hereditary duchess of brittany 1203-1221, breton noble
The basics
Quick Facts
Intro Hereditary duchess of brittany 1203-1221, breton noble
A.K.A. Alice of Thouars, Alix of Thouars
Gender female
Birth 1200 (Brittany)
Death 21 October 1221
Mother: Constance, Duchess of Brittany
Father: Guy of Thouars
Siblings: Arthur IDuke of BrittanyEleanorFair Maid of BrittanyMatilda of BrittanyCatherine of Thouars
Spouse: Peter I, Duke of Brittany
Children: John I, Duke of BrittanyYolande of Brittany
The details

Alix of Thouars (1200 – 21 October 1221) (in Breton Alis) was hereditary Duchess of Brittany and 5th Countess of Richmond from 1203 to her death.


Alix was born in 1200. She was the daughter of Constance, Duchess of Brittany and Guy of Thouars. According to several French historians, Constance died after giving birth to Alix's sisters Catherine and Margaret. Alix's older half-brother was Arthur I, Duke of Brittany and her half-sister was Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany, the children of Constance and Geoffrey Plantagenet. Upon the death of Richard I of England, a power struggle commenced between her half-brother Arthur and John, King of England. At the Battle of Mirebeau in 1202, Arthur and Eleanor were captured. Arthur was imprisoned at the Château de Falaise and in 1203 disappeared. Eleanor was imprisoned at Corfe Castle.

The Breton barons recognized Alix as Duchess of Brittany after the death of Arthur, instead of Eleanor. This was due to fears that John might claim to rule Brittany as regent for the imprisoned Eleanor. Alix's father Guy became regent for Alix until 1206, when Philip II of France made himself the regent of the duchy in Alix's name. King Philip II broke off the betrothal of Alix and the Breton prince Henry of Penthièvre, and turned to his French cousin Peter of Dreux, as Alix's husband. Pierre married Alix on 27 January 1213, and paid homage to the French king for Brittany.

In 1218 Pierre and Alix were recognized by William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke regent of England as Earl and Countess of Richmond in place of Eleanor, who would never be released from imprisonment.

Alix died on 21 October 1221, without having exercised much control over her own inheritance. She was succeeded in the duchy by her son John I, but Peter remained the de facto ruler of Brittany as John I's regent until 1237.


  1. John I, Duke of Brittany (ca. 1217-1286)
  2. Yolande of Brittany, (1218 - 1272), married Hugh XI of Lusignan, Count of Angoulême and Count of Marche
  3. Arthur of Brittany (1220–1224), betrothed to Jeanne de Craon, daughter of Amaury I de Craon and Jeanne des Roches


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