Akbar Muhammad was an associate professor of history and Africana studies at Binghamton University in New York. He specialized in African history, West African social history, as well as the study of Islam in Africa and the Americas. He is the co-editor of Racism, Sexism, and the World-System, along with Joan Smith, Jane Collins, and Terrence K. Hopkins. His own writings have been focused on slavery in Muslim Africa, Muslims in the United States, and integration in Nigeria through the use of education. He holds a notable role in the history of the Nation of Islam.
Muhammad was the youngest child of Elijah Muhammad and Clara Muhammad and he is also the brother of Imam Warith Deen Mohammed. He received his Doctor of Philosophy from Edinburgh University in Scotland. He also studied the theory of Arabic and Islamic law at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. Through his years in Cairo, he became fluent in Arabic.