Abelardo Rodríguez Luján, commonly known as Abelardo L. Rodríguez (Spanish pronunciation: [aβeˈlaɾðo ˈele roˈðɾiɣes]; May 12, 1889 – February 13, 1967) was the interim president of Mexico from 1932–1934. He completed the term of Pascual Ortiz after his resignation, during the period known as the Maximato when former president Plutarco Elías Calles (el jefe Máximo) held de facto political power.
Early life and military
Born in San José de Guaymas, Sonora, to a poor family, he worked early in his life in a hardware store, in a copper mine, and as a professional baseball player. He did not finish his primary studies in Nogales, Sonora, only having finished the 4th grade. He joined the Mexican Revolution in 1913 and began moving up the ranks soon after. He became a Colonel in 1916, and following his involvement in the Plan de Agua Prieta, he was named Military Commander of northern Baja California in 1921.
Early political positions
In 1923, he became Governor of the North Territory of Baja California and continued as both Military Commander and Governor until 1929. He continued one more year as Governor of northern Baja California, and then in 1932, he held two different cabinet positions under president Ortiz.
Following Ortiz's resignation, Rodríguez took the presidency on September 4, 1932. Some of his accomplishments included the establishment of several financial institutions, the restoration of public education, and the implementations of laws related to private charity and monopolies. He also lengthened the presidential term from four to six years.
After his term ended on November 30, 1934, Rodríguez returned to private life until 1943, when he was elected Governor of Sonora, where he had a significant impact on education. He promoted university education, establishing Sonora's state university. He resigned from his governorship in April 1948, citing health reasons. He returned to his work in business, in which he continued until his death in La Jolla, California, on February 13, 1967.
Life Achievements and Presidency of General Abelardo L Rodríguez
Presidential Period General Rodríguez 1932-1934
Improving the organization and operation of common justice, he issued the Organic Law of the District and Territorial Courts; The federal codes were reviewed and the Federal Law on Criminal Procedures was issued. Organized the Office of the Attorney General, determining the functions of the Federal Public Ministry. It carried out the study of the Law of Protection and issued the Personal Identification, Nationality and Naturalization, Foreign Service and General Mercantile Companies.
Established the National Economic Council and created the National Financial bank. Created the Federal Electricity Commission. The Palace of Fine Arts was inaugurated, the most prestigious arts institution in all Latin America.
He formed the Petróleos de México, S.A. (Petromex). He issued the Limited Liability and Public Interest Corporation Law. Supporter of cooperativism, considering it as a means for the national wealth to be distributed more evenly, he motioned before the Honorable Congress of the Union the issuance of the Cooperatives Act. Established the Regulatory Commission of the Market of Medicines.
He initiated the construction of roads and highways. He enacted the Code of Military Justice. Organized the Council of Primary Education in the Federal District. Cultural missions were organized and the rural education system was established, with agricultural schools, regional farm schools, normal suburban schools and at the same time created the Technical Council of Rural Education. He advocated for the issuance of the law that created the Autonomous University of Mexico. Promulgated the Agrarian Code. He promoted the activities of the National Agricultural Credit Bank. He reformed the Law of Secretaries of State, transforming the Department of Commerce, Commerce and Labor, into the Secretariat of the National Economy, which was responsible for establishing the bases of state interventionism and directed economy.
He created the Department of Labor. He promoted the trade union movement and protected the workers against the ambition of company leaders. The regulations of the Federal Board of Conciliation and Arbitration were issued; Of the Federal Office of Labor Defense, of Agencies of Placements, of Dangerous and Unhealthy Work, of Labor Hygiene, of the Federal Labor Inspection and of Preventive Measures of Accidents.
The national mineral reserves of gold, copper, antimony, selenium, mercury, glacinium, aluminum, manganese, chromium, platinum, radioactive minerals, mineral coal, iron, sulfur, bismuth, calcium, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, graphite, asbestos, magnesite, phosphates, nitrates and precious stones.
The greatest purpose of his life was always to improve economically, socially and culturally, as well as raising the standard of living of the proletarian classes. He did everything possible to raise the minimum wage considering the personal effort of the worker so that he could reach a level beyond covering the basic needs and those of his family and so with that better pay could, the country could prosper with a people with purchasing power. (In the North workers' salaries were set at par with those of California)
He was born poor (he wore shoes only on Sundays to go to mass) and managed to reach Division General, War and Navy Secretary, Secretary of Industry and Commerce, Secretary of Labor, Governor of Northern Territory of Baja California and of the State of Sonora and became President of the Republic of Mexico.
Since he was very young he worked in one of his brothers' hardware store where he learned to speak English and only had a formal education up to the 4th grade.
He entered and quickly climbed up the military ladder due to his character, work ethic, intelligence and bravery. The federal government appointed him as representative in the Territory of Baja California.
He started more than 80 companies and participated in approximately 126 companies.
He advocated for and was a great promoter
In Education - Helping to form the Autonomous University of Mexico, he promoted cultural missions to educate the poor. He formed the Esposos Rodríguez Foundation for scholarships for the education of young people.
In the Financial Industry - Created the National Financial Bank and the National Economic Council. He founded the Bank of the Pacific, the Mexican Bank, the Mexican Bank of the West and the Central Mexican Credit.
In the Fishing Industry - The most important industry in Baja California in its time. He bought an abandoned packing plant and ended up forming a corporation with 7 companies of it. He formed Rodríguez Shipyard whose legacy today is the most important shipyard in Mexico and is situated in the Port of Ensenada.
In Agriculture - A pioneer in the Wine Industry, the Olive Industry and its derivatives such as Olive Oil and canned olives.
In Industry - He was dedicated to increasing the national economy by means of the creation of sources of work and development of general industry. First in Mexico to have distributed profits to its employees and workers (cooperatives). He promoted that the workers had housing and even had housing built for workers.
In the Aviation Industry - Opened an aircraft factory inTijuana (then known as Zaragoza) where 3 planes were produced. Baja California 2 was the second plane to be produced and the first aircraft to fly from Mexicali to Mexico City without stopovers and later to Havana, then to Panama and touching several Central American countries before beginning its return. First Mexican airplane with this achievement. (Roberto Fierro was the pilot).
In sports - Great impeller of the sport. He supported several baseball teams and started many golf courses across the nation.
In the Arts - Boosted the Cinematographic Industry by opening several Production Studios, a distributor, Independent Cinemas and National Theaters. As president, he inaugurated the National Palace of Fine Arts.
- General Abelardo L. Rodríguez International Airport, Tijuana, Baja California
- Presa Abelardo L. Rodríguez, dam over the Tijuana River
- El Sauzal de Rodríguez, Ensenada Municipality, Baja California