|Is||Economist Writer Teacher Television presenter Radio personality Politician Pundit Civil servant Athlete Football player Association football player|
|Field||Academia Film, TV, Stage & Radio Finance Journalism Literature Politics Sports|
|Birth||22 October 1970, Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Residence||Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Politics||Liberty Advances, Avanza Libertad|
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Javier Gerardo Milei (/miˈleɪ/ mee-LAY, Spanish pronunciation: [xaˈβjeɾ xeˈɾaɾ.ðo miˈlej]; born 22 October 1970) is an Argentine politician, economist, and author who is the President-elect of Argentina. Before rising to political prominence, Milei initially gained notability as an economist, as the author of multiple books on economics and politics, and for his distinct political philosophy.
As an economist, Milei is a vocal proponent of the Austrian School. He has critiqued the fiscal policies of various Argentine administrations and he advocates for reduced government spending. As a university professor, he has taught courses in macroeconomics, economic growth, microeconomics, and mathematics for economists. He is also the author of numerous books and has hosted radio programs, including Demoliendo mitos and Cátedra libre. In 2021, he entered politics and was elected as a national deputy representing the City of Buenos Aires for La Libertad Avanza. During his tenure, he limited his legislative activities to voting, focusing instead on critiquing what he describes as Argentina's political elite and its propensity for high government spending. Milei has pledged not to raise taxes and has donated his national deputy salary through a monthly raffle. He was a presidential candidate in the upcoming 2023 general election, with Victoria Villarruel as his vice-presidential running mate. He advanced to the run-off of the presidential election, in which he faced Sergio Massa. On 19 November 2023, he won the run-off election with 56% of the vote to Massa's 44% to become President-elect.
Politically, Milei has been variously described as populist, right-wing libertarian, ultraconservative, far-right, and ultraliberal, while he identifies as a liberal libertarian, aligning specifically with minarchist and anarcho-capitalist principles. His views distinguish him in the Argentine political landscape and have garnered both public attention and political reactions. He has proposed the abolition of the Central Bank of Argentina, which would result in a de facto dollarized economy, and a comprehensive overhaul of the country's fiscal and structural policies. Milei strongly opposes abortion, even in cases of rape, and has suggested a referendum to reconsider the 2020 law (Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy Bill) that legalized it. His support for freedom of choice on topics such as drugs, prostitution, marriage, sexual preference, and gender identity have been contrasted to his opposition to abortion and euthanasia.
Beyond his professional and political life, Milei is known for his flamboyant personality, distinctive personal style, and strong media presence, both domestically and internationally. He criticizes comprehensive sex education in schools as a form of brainwashing, expressed skepticism towards COVID-19 vaccines, supports civilian firearm ownership, proposes to legalize the sale of human organs, promotes the far-right Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory, engages in climate change denial, and wants to restrict immigration of criminals.
Early life and career
Milei was born in Palermo, Buenos Aires, on 22 October 1970. His mother Alicia was a housewife, while his father Norberto was a bus driver. His family is of Italian origin. Milei grew up in the Villa Devoto neighborhood, and attended Catholic schools and private universities. He attended the Cardenal Copello high school, and later moved to Sáenz Peña, Buenos Aires. At school, he was nicknamed El Loco ("The Madman") due to his outbursts and aggressive rhetoric that later made him famous. In late teens and early adulthood, he was a goalkeeper for Chacarita Juniors until 1989.
Milei said that he decided to quit association football and fully commit himself to a career in economics at the age of 18, during the 1989 hyperinflation towards the end of the government of Raúl Alfonsín. He was studying introductory economics and the law of supply and demand: when prices increase, demand decreases. He thought that such a law seemed to be at odds with the ongoing crisis, as he saw people desperately trying to grab goods in supermarkets while the prices were being increased, and considered that he had to study economics in more detail to understand it. About his childhood, he said that his parents beat and verbally abused him, which caused him to not speak to them for a decade; he was supported by his younger sister Karina and his maternal grandmother. He sang in the cover band Everest, which mostly played Rolling Stones' covers.
Education and academic career
Milei obtained an economics degree from the private University of Belgrano (Licentiate) and received two master's degrees from the Instituto de Desarrollo Económico y Socialand the private Torcuato di Tella University.
For over twenty-one years, Milei has been a professor of macroeconomics, economics of growth, microeconomics, and mathematics for economists. He is a specialist in economic growth and has taught several economic subjects in Argentine universities and abroad. He has written more than fifty academic papers.
He became the chief economist at Máxima AFJP (a private pension company), a head economist at Estudio Broda (a financial advising company), and a government consultant at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. He was also a senior economist in HSBC Argentina. He served as chief economist at several national and international government public bodies. Since 2012, Milei has led the division of Economic Studies at Fundación Acordar, a national think tank. He is also a member of the B20, the Economic Policy Group of International Chamber of Commerce (an advisor to the G20), and the World Economic Forum. In the past, he worked at the private company Corporación América, where he served for fifteen years as the chief economist and financial adviser to Eduardo Eurnekian.
Milei is the author of several books including El camino del libertario,.
In addition to his written work, Milei has a notable presence on television. A 2018 ranking by Ejes showed that he was the most interviewed economist on TV, ahead of Fausto Spotorno and Damián Di Pace, with 235 interviews and 193,347 seconds in total.
Milei hosts his own radio show called Demoliendo mitos ("Demolishing Myths"), featuring regular appearances by the Alberdian economist and businessman Gustavo Lazzari and personalities like the Alberdian lawyer Pablo Torres Barthe and the right-libertarian political scientist María Zaldívar.
Rise to prominence
During the 2010s, Milei achieved significant notoriety and public exposure in debates developed on Argentine television programs, which characterized by insults to his rivals, his foul language, and aggressive rhetoric when expressing and debating his ideals and beliefs, such as with the Buenos Aires chief of government Horacio Rodríguez Larreta. This led many commentators to label him antipolitical or disruptive. American Senator Ted Cruz shared in Twitter an interview by Viviana Canosa with Milei, and jokingly proposed to invite him to the United States presidential debates.
Before and during his political career, Milei has been entangled in various controversies. In November 2017, he caused a stir by declaring controversially that "the main producer of Argentina's economists is a Marxist indoctrination center", in reference to the Economics School of University of Buenos Aires, leading to what he called "the ubiquitous proliferation of Keynesian brutes". In February 2017, he generated further controversy by naming Domingo Cavallo as the country's best economy minister, a choice that remains contentious due to Cavallo's unfavorable image in Argentine society.
On 26 June 2018, during a conference in San José de Metán, in the Salta Province, Milei referred to journalist Teresita Frías as "a donkey" after she criticized his ideological views as totalitarian. As he refused to apologize, he was accused of exerting gender violence, and a local court mandated a psychological examination. Family and Gender judge Carmelo Paz forbade him from participating in public gatherings as a panelist or lecturer within the boundaries of the city of Metan, under the threat of legal action. In 2018, he made his acting debut in his play El consultorio de Milei, with Claudio Rico and Diego Sucalesca. In 2019, Noticias named him one of the most influential people in Argentina. In 2020, he spoke in favor of protests against the government led by Alberto Fernández.
Avanza Libertad and La Libertad Avanza
In 2020, Milei joined Avanza Libertad (Freedom Forward), which describes itself as "a government alliance, which brings together, convenes, and addresses men and women of all social conditions, made up of different political parties, and created to promote liberal policies that contribute to the economic, political, cultural, and social takeoff that we Argentines need to return to being the thriving country that we were at the beginning of the year 1900." Avanza Libertad was criticized for including among its candidates neo-Nazis and apologists of the National Reorganization Process.
Milei's 2021 election campaign to become a member of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies was focused on Buenos Aires neighborhoods. He used a cheap campaign, with strolls in the neighborhoods and talks with random people. By May 2022, he was growing in the polls. His rhetoric was attractive to the under-30 voters who were born during the 1998–2002 Argentine great depression and face the 2020's economic stagnation. By March 2023, polls showed that 17% of Argentines would vote for him for president and that his political coalition would become the third parliamentary force in the Argentine Congress. His supporters include those who once voted for Kirchnerism but as of 2023 would vote for Milei as a protest even if they may not support his economic ideas.
During his successful election campaign in July 2021, Milei pledged not to support any tax increases or new taxes. He established the coalition La Libertad Avanza (Freedom Moves Forward), which secured the third place in the primary elections in Argentina with 13.66% of the vote. In the 2021 Argentine legislative election, with 17% of the votes, it confirmed the third place, and Milei's far-right coalition entered the Argentine Congress. They performed the best in Cordoba and Santa Fe, the second and third most populous districts in the country; they also performed well in Peronist strongholds in North Tucuman, Salta, La Rioja, and San Juan, and in Santa Cruz in Patagonia, which is considered the cradle of Kirchnerism.
Running under the slogan "I didn't come here to lead lambs but to awaken lions", Milei denounced what he saw as a political caste, which he described as being composed of "useless, parasitic politicians who have never worked". He said phrases like "I'm here to kick these criminals out", and was particularly supported by the youth for his ways of communication, which included the promotion of his political views on TV, radio, and YouTube. In September 2021, Milei said: "The first thing I am going to say to the shitty, silly, parasitic and useless political caste is what I am not going to do. I will never go against private property, I will never go against freedom, I will never raise a tax, I will never create new taxes." Upon assuming office as deputy, Milei fulfilled one of his campaign promises by raffling his salary to a random person each month, aiming to "return money to the citizens". He described this monthly raffle, which is open to anyone, as a way to get rid of what he considers to be dirty money and said: "The state is a criminal organization that finances itself through taxes levied on people by force. We are returning the money that the political caste stole."
As a national deputy, Milei has been present in the Chamber 52 per cent of the time as of April 2023. As of October 2022, he did not propose laws and did not join any parliamentary commissions. This remained true by August 2023. One of his absences was particularly criticized by the Juntos por el Cambio opposition because it allowed the national government to raise taxes on plane tickets by a single vote. At the same time, his promised monthly raffle for the salary he receives as a national deputy gave away more than seven million pesos since his election to Parliament.
In July 2023, Milei faced an investigation into alleged selling of candidacies within La Libertad Avanza. The businessman Juan Carlos Blumberg said that La Libertad Avanza "made politics a business", which prompted Milei to respond and deny that there were paid candidates. Milei was also accused of having been funded and supported by Peronism. Juan Luis González criticized that Milei "allowed himself to be financed by provincial governments, received technical, logistical, and monetary aid from the Peronism that he claims to fight, threatened all those who wanted to open their mouths...". The statements made by the prosecutor Ramiro González did not provide concrete data about the allegations. While the investigation was still progressing as of July 2023, Milei dismissed it as a political operation to discredit him, and demanded that González be investigated, accusing him of damaging his image.
2023 presidential campaign
A member of the Libertarian Party, Milei is a candidate for president of Argentina as part of La Libertad Avanza. His running mate is Victoria Villarruel. As inflation rose above 100% in May 2023, his position in the polls increased. During the campaign for the primary elections, Milei generated controversy after he suggested that he would allow the free sale of firearms and human organs. Furthermore, he intends to revoke the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy Bill that legalized abortion in Argentina, which was approved in 2020, and is against its decriminalization. In an August 2023 interview with Alejandro Fantino, he suggested holding a referendum to do so, saying: "Just because something is legal, it does not mean that it is legitimate. I am against it (the abortion law) because it is against the right to life. ... At least I would hold a referendum. And, if the result is in my favor, the law is eliminated. But let the Argentines choose. Let's see if the Argentines believe in the murder of a defenseless human in the womb of the mother." Gun laws in Argentina are restrictive. According to his party's electoral platform, Milei proposes the "deregulation of the legal market" for weapons and "the protection of its legitimate and responsible use by the citizens".
Milei's rise has been described within the context of the last two presidencies. Analysts described a win for Milei as a more dramatic version of the pro-business government of former president Mauricio Macri, who tried to introduce market reforms after taking office in 2015 only to clash with the political opposition and plunge headlong into a financial crisis that ended with the country asking the International Monetary Fund for another rescue package. Fernández, Macri's successor, has struggled to fix the economy amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina and a severe shortage of foreign currency, leaving the country vulnerable to another debt default. Fernández is also an unpopular president and chose not to run for re-election. In August 2023, Milei stated that he would not end social programs, which support millions of people in a country where almost 40% of the population is impoverished; he described them as "victims, not victimizers". He added that ending this type of social assistance would take up to fifteen years.
In the August primary election, which is seen as an indication of how citizens are likely to vote in the October general election, Milei emerged as the leading presidential candidate, with 30% of the votes, ahead of the traditional Peronism–Kirchnerism and Macrism that dominated the country in the 2010s. The opinion polls predicted that economy minister Sergio Massa would secure the most votes as a candidate in the primaries, with Juntos por el Cambio expected to be the most voted coalition overall; Milei was polled at about 20% and was seen as an outsider candidate. In June 2023, the markets welcomed Massa's presidential candidacy, as it polarized the election between the ruling party and Juntos por el Cambio, reducing what was called the "Milei factor". Javier Timerman, Managing Partner of Adcap Grupo Financiero, said on CCN Radio that "Javier Milei has always been a source of fear and uncertainty for foreign investors, both financial and investor in the real economy."
Initially, for the first round of the general election, with the possibility of a run-off in November, Peronists saw Milei as a possible ally who would divide the votes of the centre-right coalition. During the night of celebration, Milei danced rock and roll with his family, choosing Bersuit Vergarabat's song "Se viene"; the song's chorus says: "The explosion is coming." Milei looks to Menem as an example and the band had forbidden him to use the song. Despite this, the hall of celebrations sang it anyway. He said: "This election will not only put an end to Kirchnerism, but also to the parasitic, larcenous, useless caste that is sinking the country." His win was celebrated by far-right figures including Jair Bolsonaro, José Antonio Kast, and Ted Cruz; and Spanish political party Vox.
The Argentine peso plunged and interest rates were raised in the aftermath of his primary election victory, while the official dollar exchange rate rose by 20%, and the Central Bank of Argentina raised interest rates. As a result of his strong performance in the primaries, Milei is considered the frontrunner for the general election. Analysts say that this could lead to higher inflationary and foreign exchange pressures. According to the Eurasia Group analyst and Latin American researcher Luciano Sigalov, if Milei wins the presidency, he would face governability issues due to a lack of parliamentary majority to pass the radical pro-market reforms he advocates, and may result in street resistance and protest from Peronist and social movements; Sigalov said, "The likely prospect of a Milei victory and the risks from his radical policy program will generate more pressures on inflation and exchange rates. The worsening economic conditions will benefit Milei as he blames [rival] politicians for the spiraling crisis."
On 22 October, Milei advanced to the run-off, in which he faced Massa. Milei defeated Massa in the run-off on 19 November when Massa conceded, with Milei taking office as president on 10 December.
Perceptions of Milei as an economist
Although part of the Austrian School of economics, which generally holds skeptical views of using mathematics in economics, Milei frequently employs mathematical formulas and charts in his writings. This has led to criticisms from both Austrian and mainstream Argentine economists.
He has been described as a controversial and eccentric economist and an ultralibertarian economist. In 2021, he was accused of having plagiarized in his El Cronista and Infobae columns and works, from El camino del libertario to Pandenomics, the main authors of the Austrian School, such as Henry Hazlitt, Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, Friedrich Hayek, and Walter Block. He dismissed those allegations, saying: "It doesn't make sense." He argued that, as they were disclosure notes, there was no need to name the authors for a practical issue. For Pandenomics, he was accused of having plagiarized the works of other academics, such as a mathematical model to study different epidemic outbreaks throughout history, among others.
Perceptions of Milei's political positions
Political commentators categorize his ideological views as a blend of populist, right-wing libertarian, and conservative strands,. along with ultraliberal economics, right-wing populist, ultraconservative, and far-right politics, and representing anti-politics.
His proposed abolition of the Central Bank of Argentina and dollarization have met criticism; the Argentine peso plunged and interest rates were raised in the aftermath of his primaries win. His foreign policy views have been described as radical as his economic views. Argentine mainstream economists also criticized Milei's economic work and his presentention, describing his concepts as confusing, and arguing that the formulas he uses are not correct; in particular, they criticized his Central Bank of Argentina abolition and dollarization proposals. Milei dismissed the critics of dollarization, saying that they do not understand "the condition of transversality".
His views on transgender rights have attracted criticism from Argentine LGBTQ activists. In June 2022, two Avanza Libertad members of the legislative assembly of Buenos Aires Province proposed a bill to ban inclusive language at schools. According to Sonia Corrêa, co-coordinator of Sexuality and Policy Watch, these bills are not rooted in an ideological belief but are an effort to "lure the constituency of [far-right politician] Javier Milei".
Milei's stances on social issues, such as abortion, are the main reason why political commentators and other libertarians do not consider him truly a libertarian. Among libertarians, some described him as a libertarian for his overall economic libertarian or neoliberal stances, and rejected comparisons to Trump and Bolsonaro, while others cited the issue of abortion as a reason not to call him a libertarian. Milei said: "I am against abortion because I believe in the life project of others. The woman can choose about her body, but what she has inside her womb is not her body, it is another individual." In response, Carmen Beatriz Fernández, an expert in political communication, stated that Milei is not libertarian but a "neopopulist or right-wing authoritarian". Guillermo Tell Aveledo, a political scientist and dean of the Faculty of Legal and Political Studies of the Metropolitan University of Caracas, said: "His criticisms on issues such as budgets and specific policies, both in his time as a commentator on television programs and now as a congressman, have been directed at the size and action of the state, so he fits the profile of a libertarian." At the same time, he agreed that Milei's conservative positions and other contradictions prevented him from being considered a "genuine libertarian". As a result, he argued that "paleolibertarian (conservative libertarian)" or "anarcho-capitalist", namely someone who believes in a form of stateless free-market capitalism, or that society can be organized and function only with the market without the need for the state, are more appropriate labels to describe Milei's politics.
While in the words of Cristóbal Rovira, a professor of political science at the Catholic University of Chile, "Milei has a libertarian component that makes him a rare creature compared to the ultra-right of Latin America", he is placed within the context of the global far right. He said: "There is a fairly global wave of the extreme right. They start in Western Europe, where the emblematic case of Jean-Marie Le Pen is in France in the 1980s, they expand to Eastern Europe and today we see that they are beginning to gain territory in other places: Trump, Bolsonaro." According to Rovira, "Milei would fit into the prototype of what these ultra-rights are." He said: "At an academic level we define them by two important criteria. First, they are to the right of the mainstream right and profess much more radical ideas. In the case of Argentina, Milei is positioned to the right of Macrismo. Second, they maintain an ambivalent relationship with the democratic system and sometimes profess authoritarian ideas. That differentiates them from the traditional right, which act within the rules of the democratic game." According to Rovira, "Milei's case fits very well into this double classification."
Andrés Malamud, a researcher at the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon, argued that Milei's speech is anarcho-capitalist because "it's limited to interests and incentives: lowering taxes, reducing state intervention, liberalizing even organ trafficking. Technically, he's also a minarchist. A doctrinaire ultraliberal would be the most understandable. About Milei's appeal, Malamud said: "The political secret is to appeal to the basic instincts, under simple banners: liberty, life and property. That's why Milei loves television sets, where he yells, insults and crushes anyone who criticizes him. His curly black hair is the icon of his campaign. On stage, he wears black leather – fire is lit at the climax of his speeches." Malamud added that "Milei is a vitalist: he's not here 'to guide lambs but to wake up lions,' as he himself says. This is where he gets his conservative values, such as nationalism and anti-abortionism." Pablo Touzón, a political scientist and director of the consulting firm Escenarios, said that "Milei is a war machine against [the political class], a brick thrown against the window of a jewellery store." Touzón added: "He combines a kind of ultraliberal orthodoxy, from [Milton] Friedman and [Friedrich] Von Hayek... he sees himself as a warrior against the state. But he combines that hyperliberal ideology and freedom with elements of the extreme-right." About his comparisons with Trump, Touzón stated that Milei represents a local version of Trumpism that does not defend protectionism. About his rise in the polls, Touzón said: "If he has so many voters, it's not because he's liberal – it's because he represents the anti-establishment, as Podemos did in Spain from the left. Here, [in Argentina], it's done from the right."
Presidential elections 2023
Public opinion polls
In 2023, various public opinion polls showed mixed perceptions of Javier Milei in Argentina. For instance, a poll conducted by Atlas Intel in November indicated Milei leading over Sergio Massa with 48.6% against 44.6%. Conversely, CELAG's survey showed Massa slightly ahead with 46.7% to Milei's 45.3%. University of San Andrés and CB Consultora polls also favored Milei, with him leading in different margins. In contrast, Circuitos and Giacobbe polls predicted a tight race, with outcomes swinging between both candidates. These polls underscored a politically divided landscape in Argentina, reflecting the complexity of predicting electoral results in the country.
During the 2023 presidential campaign, Milei has been described as a far-right populist, far-right outsider, far-right libertarian, and libertarian populist, and labelled far-right or radical right by international news agencies like Al Jazeera, the BBC, and Reuters, newspapers including The Economist, The Daily Telegraph, the Financial Times, Le Monde, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, news magazines like Time, and several Argentine and Spanish-language publications including among the others El Diario, elDiario.es, El Mundo, El País, Perfil, Télam, and Tiempo Argentino. Milei rejected the use of the far-right label to describe his views, and said: "I'm a liberal and libertarian, these positions are things of the left, because for the left, everything that is not on their side is on the right."
During his 2023 presidential campaign and August 2023 primaries win, the international press who reported on Milei used a range of labels to describe him. Due to his primaries upset win, he was described as a far-right populist or outsider. Reuters reported that Milei is a "radical right-wing candidate", Time called him a populist, El País described him as an "ultra-right libertarian and 'anarcho-capitalist' who represents angry Argentina", CNN characterized him as an outsider, The Economist headlined that "Argentina could get its first libertarian president", CBC News described him as a "libertarian firebrand", and the BBC described him as a "Trump admirer". He has also been compared to American conservative Tucker Carlson, Ron DeSantis, and Marine Le Pen of France's National Rally. Tucker Carlson published his interview with Milei on Twitter on September 15, garnering over 400 million views
Milei's August 2023 primaries win achieved international recognition and headlines, from The New York Times to El País and Latin American media and Asian news agencies, which reported on his surprise win and the uncertain electoral scenario in Argentina for the 2023 October general election. Analysts saw his win a result of voters being frustrated by both Peronist and non-Peronist governments. Much of the international press described him as ultraright and ultraliberal, compared him to Trump and Bolsonaro, mentioned dollarization, and highlighted his controversies, such as the sale of organs and the free bearing of arms. They also cited the escalation of the dollar and the rise in interest rates of the country's central bank, and placed it within the context of a scenario of extreme volatility and uncertainty.
In Britain, BBC News headlined: "The anti-establishment Javier Milei surprises by winning the primaries in Argentina." The Daily Mail headlined: "Who is Javier Milei, Argentina's far-right populist politician?" The Financial Times highlighted the political significance of the upset win of Milei, whom they described as a radical right-winger who they say shocked the political scene in Argentina and revolutionized the presidential race with his primaries win. Reuters headlined: "Argentine far-right outsider Javier Milei posts shock win in primary election." They described Milei's win as a punishment vote by Argentines for the two main political forces in the country. In this way, voters pushed "a rock-singing libertarian outsider candidate into first place in a huge shake-up in the race towards presidential elections in October", and gave "a stinging rebuke to the center-left Peronist coalition and the main Together for Change conservative opposition bloc with inflation at 116% and a cost-of-living crisis leaving four in 10 people in poverty."
In France, Le Figaro described the Milei phenomenon as "the new sensation of Argentine politics" and characterized him as a far-right anti-establishment liberal with "rockstar airs". Le Monde highlighted that Milei "disrupts the Argentine political landscape" in favor of "a state reduced to its minimum expression, he defends the freedom to bear arms and sell organs. He is resolutely climate skeptic and rejects legal abortion, [which was] approved in 2020 in Argentina. It shows its affinities with former presidents Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro." In Spain, El Mundo emphasized Milei's win over Peronism, headlining: "Argentina. Peronism suffers the worst defeat in its history and Milei's libertarian ultra-right wins the primaries." El País headlined: "The ultra Javier Milei capitalizes on the protest vote and wins the primary elections in Argentina."
In the United States, the Associated Press emphasized Milei's controversial statements and said he could be Argentina's next president. They wrote: "He believes selling human organs should be legal, climate change is a 'socialist lie,' sex education is a ploy to destroy the family and that the Central Bank should be abolished." They described him as "the latest example of how right-wing populists are making inroads in Latin America, appealing to a citizenry angry with politics as usual and eager for outsiders to shake up the system." The New York Times highlighted the dollarization proposal of Milei, whom they described as a far-right libertarian. They wrote: "Javier Milei, who wants to abolish the central bank and adopt the U.S. dollar as Argentina's currency, is now the front-runner in the fall general election."
In Brazil, Folha de São Paulo described Milei as a right-wing radical whose proposals included the "sale of organs, liberalization of weapons, dollarization of the economy, and an end to of the Central Bank". O Globo launched a series of op-eds about Milei winning the October 2023 elections, and said that the incumbent president of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, must be ready for what they described as "the arrival of Javier Milei", whom they characterized as "ally of Jair Bolsonaro" and "adverse to the Workers' Party (PT)" founded by Lula. In Chile, La Tercera wrote: "Milei hits hard and is the most voted, Bullrich surpasses Larreta, and Kirchnerism is third." In Peru, La República described Milei's victory as a surprise and said that the markets in Argentina collapsed after the 2023 August results. In Uruguay, El País headlined: "Milei's batacazo in the PASO elections in Argentina: he surpasses Macri's sector and Kirchnerism."
In China, the state agency Xinhua appealed to a definition by analyst Rosendo Fraga to describe Milei as "a representative of the Western extreme right who adopts rockstar attitudes" and "found an echo especially among young libertarians". In Russia, the state network RT called Milei "controversial and denier", and highlighted the changes that Milei's win would cause to Argentine politics as becoming marked by "tripartism and new leadership", while the state agency Sputnik called him an "outsider candidate" and a "black swan".
During the COVID-19 pandemic, Milei expressed skepticism about COVID-19 vaccines. He questioned the national government COVID-19 vaccination policy. In November 2021, Milei vaccinated himself for COVID-19, citing economic reasons based on a risk–benefit analysis that he made, and rejected the anti-vaccination label that was used to describe his views on the issue; he dismissed the negative impact his COVID-19 vaccine statements could have had on the campaign against COVID-19. Before his vaccination, he had said that due to an evaluated "income-risk" and the claim that not all vaccines were "well tested". He said: "Pharmacological products require ten years of empirical testing and this product is a year and a half old." The World Health Organization stated that "the safety and efficacy required by vaccines are not in question" despite the fact that they were developed "at an unprecedented speed". About his decision to get vaccinated, he said: "Now I am entering Congress, I am going to give up my diet, on 10 December I am leaving my job, I have to go to give talks in Uruguay, the United States, Chile, and Spain, and I cannot enter without the vaccine. What do I do? Do I run out of income? What do I live on?" He chose the Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine because it is an inactivated virus vaccine.
A climate change denier, Milei rejects the existence of global warming, contradicting the scientific consensus on climate change, and attributes it to a socialist invention; he said that concerns about climate change are nothing more than "deceptions promoted by the neo-Marxists".
Milei promotes the far-right Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory. He uses Cultural Marxism as a label to accuse left-wing politics and progressives of enforcing political correctness. This includes usage of Cultural Marxism in reference to an alleged gender ideology, feminism, LGBTQ movements, minority rights, and public education and comprehensive sex education (ESI) in schools, which he has linked to brainwashing; he said that students are "hostages of a system of state indoctrination". Additionally, Milei linked Cultural Marxism to the Ministry of Women, Genders, and Diversity, and expressed his intent to close that ministry if he is elected president. Milei's criticism of Educación Sexual Integral (ESI), which he defined as part of a "post-Marxist agenda" and a ploy leading to the "destruction of the most important social nucleus, the family", prompted a response from Amnesty International, which warned about its possible removal, said that ESI is important to the prevention of child sexual abuse, and dismissed allegations that it is used to promote being transgender or crossdressing.
Sale of children
When questioned on the topic of selling children, Milei initially responded ambiguously but later clarified his opposition, stating, "Obviously, I do not agree with the sale of children."
Javier Milei advocates for minimal government, focusing on justice and security, with a philosophy rooted in life, liberty, property, and free-market principles. Milei criticizes socialism and communism, advocating for economic liberalization and restructuring of government ministries. He opposes Argentina's Central Bank and current taxation policies.
Economically, Milei is influenced by the Austrian School and admires former President Carlos Menem's policies. He supports capitalism, viewing socialism as embodying envy and coercion. Milei proposes reducing government ministries and addressing economic challenges through spending cuts and fiscal reforms, criticizing previous administrations for excessive spending.
Socially conservative, Milei opposes abortion and euthanasia, is indifferent to same-sex marriage, and supports privatization in education and healthcare. He opposes mandatory vaccination, and supports drug legalization and prostitution. Milei advocates for deregulation of firearm ownership and proposes immigration restrictions for criminals.
In foreign policy, he criticizes the IMF, opposes trade unions, aligns with anti-socialist figures like Trump and Bolsonaro, and prioritizes alliances with the U.S. and Israel. He is cautious about relations with China, supports Ukraine against Russia, and advocates for dialogue regarding the Falklands War.
Milei opposes abortion rights, and has publicly affirmed a staunch anti-abortion stance, saying that abortion violates the non-aggression principle; he sees it as a property conflict or issue of ownership, and drew comparisons between abortion and theft. When questioned in September 2021 by a O Globo journalist about an abortion case involving the rape of a 10-year-old girl, Milei asserted that an abortion in such circumstances would still constitute murder. In October 2021, he said: "Why is one crime compensated with another crime?" He stated his support for abortion only when the mother's life is at risk. If he is elected president, he proposes to hold a referendum about the law that legalized abortion in 2020, and in such a case he said that he would support its repeal. He said: "When you construct on the basis of an incorrect moral principle, the result is filth. How can being able to kill other human beings be a right gained? As a liberal, I believe in the unrestricted right to life based on the defence of life, liberty and property. I defend life, biology says that life begins with conception." He also opposes euthanasia. Due to his views about abortion, alongside a crackdown on crime and prohibition of the use of inclusive language, he has been characterized as socially conservative.
Milei spoke in favor of a legal organ trade, seeing as a way to reduce waiting lists for organ transplants, and said that there could be market mechanisms to encourage organ donors. He said: "If women can have control over their bodies, why not everybody else?" In a June 2022 interview, when asked about his stance on the sale of children, Milei initially said that "it depends". In the same interview, he said: "If I had a child, I wouldn't sell them, but that's not the current topic of discussion in Argentine society. Maybe it will be in 200 years, I don't know." Due to the ensuing controversy, he later clarified his position and expressed his opposition to it. He explained his opposition in clearer terms, while separating it from the organ trade legalization as "a different discussion", stating: "Obviously, I do not agree with the sale of children."
Milei said that he has no issues with same-sex marriage and is indifferent to it; he sees marriage as a contract and is opposed to it as an institution. On homosexuality more generally, he stated: "If you decide to be homosexual, how does that affect my life? Not at all. My liberty? Not at all. My property? Not at all. Therefore, I have nothing to say." He said that the way in which sexuality is lived "is a personal choice", and added: "I don't agree at all that homosexuality is a disease." In a 2023 interview, Milei compared homosexuality to having sex with an elephant. On transgender rights, Milei said that he "does not care" about gender identification, which he compared to identifying as a cougar, "as long as you do not make me pay the bill", in reference to public funding for gender-affirming care and public education. He said: "I have no problem, but don't impose it on me by the state. Don't steal money from people to impose someone else's ideas on them. That is violent." Milei's comments and stances about transgender rights caused criticism among Argentine LGBTQ activists. In June 2022, two Avanza Libertad members of the legislative assembly of Buenos Aires Province proposed a bill to ban inclusive language at schools. According to Sonia Corrêa, co-coordinator of Sexuality and Policy Watch, these bills are not rooted in an ideological belief but are an effort to "lure the constituency of [far-right politician] Javier Milei".
A climate change denier, Milei rejects the existence of global warming, ignoring the scientific consensus on climate change, and attributes it to a socialist invention; he said that concerns about climate change are nothing more than "deceptions promoted by the neo-Marxists".
Comments regarding political correctness
Milei promotes the far-right Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory. He uses Cultural Marxism as a label to accuse left-wing politics and progressives of enforcing political correctness. This includes usage of Cultural Marxism in reference to an alleged gender ideology, feminism, LGBTQ movements, minority rights, and public education and comprehensive sex education (ESI) in schools, which he has linked to brainwashing; he said that students are "hostages of a system of state indoctrination". He intends to eliminate the law that makes ESI in schools mandatory, saying it is naive to think it would not be used for what he sees as indoctrination, and he wants to implement an education voucher system to decentralize education by "giving the budget to parents". Additionally, Milei linked Cultural Marxism to the Ministry of Women, Genders, and Diversity, and expressed his intent to abolish that ministry if he is elected president. Milei's criticism of ESI, which he defined as part of a "post-Marxist agenda" and a ploy leading to the "destruction of the most important social nucleus, the family", prompted a response from Amnesty International, which warned about its possible removal, said that ESI is important to the prevention of child sexual abuse, and dismissed allegations that it is used to promote being transgender or crossdressing.
While theoretically an anarcho-capitalist, Milei identifies in the short term as a minarchist, liberal-libertarian, or classical liberal. He explained that he is an "anarcho-capitalist, because the state is the enemy. But you live in the real world and you have to have your feet on the ground. In this context, I am a minarchist – that is, someone who believes that the state should only be in charge of security and justice." He said that the state should be concerned only with administering justice and guaranteeing security. Milei aligns with economic liberalism and fiscal conservatism, often referencing the economic policies of Carlos Menem, who served as Argentina's president from 1989 to 1999, and his economy minister Domingo Cavallo; he described them as the "best economic government in Argentine history". Additionally, he upholds the ideals of Juan Bautista Alberdi and his constitution, and defended Alberto Benegas Lynch as "the greatest hero of the ideas of freedom", and the Generation of '80. Milei envisions eventually dismantling the state and the Central Bank of Argentina, which he described as "one of the greatest thieves in the history of mankind", allowing citizens to freely select their monetary system, including the potential adoption of a dollarized economy, to combat the country's inflationary issues; he says they are made worse by the Central Bank of Argentina, which he accuses of stealing money from Argentines through inflation. About the convertibility plan of the 1990s, Milei said: "Convertibility was launched on [1 April] 1991. By January of 1993, we were the country with the lowest inflation in the world. I propose the free competition of currencies, full reform of the financial system. Thus, the most probable thing is that Argentines choose the dollar."
Milei pledged to a sharp cut in government spending; he proposes a sharp economic shock to reduce inflation and the Argentine economy's issues, and to pay the country's debt. He said: "Central banks are divided in four categories: the bad ones, like the Federal Reserve, the very bad ones, like the ones in Latin America, the horribly bad ones, and the Central Bank of Argentina." Milei supports privatizing state-owned enterprises, including shale driller YPF, public services like health care and education, and roads, and pledged to scrap soy taxes and ditch electric-vehicle battery bid as part of his deregulation program. He also articulated his intention to either shut down, privatize, or redefine the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, while shutting down or merging most governmental ministries, including the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Social Development, and the Ministry of Health, and reduce them from 18 to 8. A video of him tearing cards from a wallboard with the names of ministries that he wants to abolish and tossing them into the air went viral. In the video, he says: "The state is not the solution. It is the problem." He is opposed to trade unions and described the Article 14 of the Argentine Constitution, which guarantees labor rights, pensions, and the entire social security system, as the country's cancer; he pledged to repeal it as president.
Milei promises to balance the budget. Argentina has failed to meet targets on cutting its fiscal deficit and building up foreign reserves under its $44 billion arrangement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which approved a $7.5 billion loan disbursement. In a July 2023 interview with the Financial Times about this, Milei said that if is elected president of Argentina, he would "overshoot all the targets" in the IMF deal, calling the required spending cuts as small compared with what he says the country needs. About the IMF, which provided Argentina with twenty-two bailouts, Milei said that it "doesn't care" about what he described as the country's deep-rooted challenges. He said: "The IMF are just a bunch of bureaucrats who know that a bank's business is to charge interest. If I'm elected it will be to solve Argentina's problems." According to his adviser Darío Epstein, Milei pledges to balance the budget within three months. Epstein said: "The first thing we have to do is to lower the fiscal deficit by 5 percentage points, which is not at all easy. As Argentina is in a very critical situation, with 40 to 45 per cent poverty, what we can't do is to fire people from the public sector or lower social spending. That is very important."
Immigration and foreigners
Argentina is one of the few countries whose constitution establishes the promotion of immigration as one of the duties of the state; Argentina and the United States accepted more immigrants than any other country around the turn of the 20th century. Milei's 2023 presidential platform includes restrictions on immigration. He stated that he would prohibit the entry into the country of migrants with a criminal record, and said that he wanted to expel those who commit crimes. Milei's platform also proposes to restrict free education and universal healthcare for foreign nationals.
Milei praised some measures of the first government of Carlos Menem, whom he considers the "best president of all history", and his economy minister Domingo Cavallo. In addition to that, he honored Juan Bautista Alberdi, and the Argentine historic presidencies era of Bartolomé Mitre, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, and Nicolás Avellaneda. For their government efforts as part of the Conservative Republic , he also praised the Generation of '80, including Justo José de Urquiza, Julio Argentino Roca, and Carlos Pellegrini. Milei criticized the judiciary for allegedly persecuting opponents and favoring friends, and his proposed judicial reform include the appointment of a supreme court judge who is says would be a "feral defender" of the ideas of Alberdi. He questions the governments and policies applied by the Radical Civic Union, the Justicialist Party, and military coups in Argentina. While Milei publicly expressed that he is not a defender of the last Argentine military dictatorship (the National Reorganization Process) and the Dirty War, he has questioned the Dirty War's 30,000 disappeared toll. In September 2022, he again questioned the toll. He asked: "Where are they? Show me the list." He described the military dictatorship of Jorge Videla as the leader of "one of the darkest periods of Argentine history" but that "it was also something that was quite complicated". His view is that the guerrilla terrorists of the 1970s should be condemned like the Argentine military dictatorship, seeing that period as a war between the state and terrorism.
Milei argues that "the only time that pure liberalism was applied was in 1860 and we were a prosperous country." He criticized the governments of Hipólito Yrigoyen, Juan Domingo Perón, Raúl Alfonsín, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, and Alberto Fernández. Milei characterized 1930s Argentina as a fascist regime that led to Peronism and Perón's "three-legged fascism" rather than a return to liberal policies. Despite his anti-Peronism and criticism of Peronism, some commentators cited similarities and contradictions between Milei and Peronism, and argued that he remains a representative of Peronism, where Peronism is not only an ideology but is considered a way to govern, citing examples of left-leaning Peronism (Kirchnerism) and right-wing Peronism, such as that of Menem, who privatized and engaged in neoliberal reforms. Others agreed that Milei is a populist but argued that he is using populism for liberal ends. Milei also criticized individual politicians of the Juntos por el Cambio centre-right coalition, which he was able to push to the right since 2015. Milei excluded the Juntos por el Cambio leader and former prime minister Mauricio Macri from the political caste he denounce for what he regards as their collectivist policies but criticized Juntos por el Cambio member María Eugenia Vidal, who had said that "we share the same values", as governor of the Buenos Aires Province for not keeping her campaign promises of lower taxes. Milei described Patricia Bullrich, the 2023 Juntos por el Cambio leader, as "part of the Argentine failure".
In a debate prior to the 2021 primary elections, Milei was asked by the Frente de Todos candidate Leandro Santoro if he had ever worked for the public sector, since Milei advocates for the state's abolition. Milei had criticized him as "a state parasite", and said: "I understand that you are 45 years old and you have been involved in politics since you were 14. Have you ever worked in the private sector in your life?" Santoro affirmed that Milei was "an employee of the National Congress in 1994 and reported for the former genocidal general Antonio Domingo Bussi", who at the time was a national deputy. In response, Milei acknowledged having worked for Bussi through his Twitter account. In a September 2022 speech to Argentina's Chamber of Deputies, Milei criticized Macri for his proposal not to put a dollar into the Aerolíneas Argentinas, wondering why he did not do that when he was president, and questioned the government 2023 budget. He also referred to the attempted assassination of Fernández de Kirchner as "not a magnicide", claiming that the term implies that the "political caste" is above the people.
Milei has expressed praise for former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and cited her economic policies as an influence, a stance which caused controversy with Falklands War veterans in Argentina due to her association with the sinking of the General Belgrano. When challenged about his views on Thatcher by his 2023 Argentine general election opponent Sergio Massa during a televised debate, Milei referred to Thatcher as one of "the great leaders in the history of humanity" due to her role in the Fall of the Berlin Wall and opposing communism in Europe.
Milei has earned the nickname of el Peluca ("The Wig") due to his eccentric hairstyle. He has consistently stated that he does not comb his hair, leading to significant press attention; only Lilia Lemoine, vice president of his party and a cosplayer, is able to style his hair. In May 2022, he stated: "I will not be apologizing for having a penis. I don't have to feel ashamed of being a man, white, blond with light blue eyes."
In 2018, Milei revealed that he was previously estranged from his parents and regarded them as dead. During his 2021 political campaign, he reconciled with both his father and mother. He has always had a close bond with his younger sister, Karina Milei, who managed his election campaigns. Regarding his romantic life, Milei is not married, and said that if elected president, he would have his sister take the role of First Lady; previously, he dated the singer Daniela Mori. In August 2023, he announced that he is dating actress Fátima Flórez.
Milei indicated in an October 2017 interview with La Nación that he champions free love. On a local television program in June 2020, he disclosed his involvement in several threesomes and his role as a neotantra instructor, describing himself as a tantric sex instructor, claiming to be "capable of remaining three months without ejaculating". In August 2023, The Daily Telegraph characterized him as a "rock singer and tantric sex instructor", while The Guardian referred to him as a "former tantric sex coach". Milei has compared drug use to suicide. He said that he had smoked marijuana only once and recalled: "I remember laughing a lot."
In July 2023, the journalist Juan Luis González released El Loco, a biography of Milei, with whom he held a number of interviews. The book sought to define the New Right in Argentina, and González said that he could not avoid discussing Milei, including his eccentric personal life, ranging from telepathy and esotericism to speaking with his dead dog to his "God-sent mission" to become Argentina's president. In the book's preface, González wrote: "With the passing of the months, the interviews, the off-the-record meetings, following invoices, stamps, and paperwork, the work went from being a field one with almost academic edges to a tragicomic thriller, halfway between Raymond Chandler's black noirs and John Kennedy Toole's A Confederacy of Dunces."
Milei is a cosplayer, and has a superhero persona called "General AnCap".
While Milei identifies as Catholic, he has been critical of the Catholic Church under Pope Francis, whom on different occasions he called a "Jesuit who promotes communism", "an unpresentable and disastrous character", as well as "a fucking communist", a "communist turd", and a "piece of shit", and accused him of "preaching communism to the world" and being "the representative of the evil one on Earth" for promoting the option for the poor, a social justice Catholic doctrine of aid to the underprivileged. As a result, the highest authorities of the Argentine Episcopal Conference and other Catholics criticized him. Catholic social teaching is considered theft by La Libertad Avanza because it relies on tax revenues, with Milei stating: "Jesus didn't pay taxes." In response, about the upcoming 2023 elections, Pope Francis said: "The extreme right always reconstructs itself, it is the triumph of selfishness over communitarianism. ... I am terrified of saviours of the nation without a political party history."
Milei cites Biblical passages to criticize the state, which he describes as "an invention of the evil one", and his disdain for the state is such that he puts himself in a radical dilemma: "If I had to choose between the state and the mafia, I would choose the mafia. Because the mafia has codes, the mafia adapts, the mafia doesn't lie. And above all, the mafia competes."
Milei expressed contemplation about converting to Judaism but said that observing the Jewish Sabbath could pose challenges if he were to become president. In a 2018 Radio El Mundo interview, Milei expressed his belief in the existence of God. He reiterated this belief in 2022 to the journalist Luis Novaresio, who retorted: "How can a guy as pragmatic as you believe in something unverifiable?" Milei responded: "That is your case. Very strong things have happened to me, which exceed any scientific explanation." According to Milei, like Moses he had conversations with God, whom he refers to as "the number 1", who told him that he had the mission of entering politics and not stopping until he became president. He also reads the Torah daily and has visited the grave of Orthodox rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.
Milei is the owner of five English Mastiffs, with the progenitor being Conan, who died in 2017 after suffering from spinal cancer. He considers Conan his son and has named four of Conan's six clones, including one named after the original and another named Angelito, Milton (in honor of Milton Friedman), Murray (in honor of Murray Rothbard), Robert, and Lucas (both named after Robert Lucas). Milei said that he cloned Conan because he understands cloning as "a way of approaching eternity". To do this, he went to a clinic in the United States; the process cost him about $50,000. He has described his dogs as four-legged children and thanked them after his 2023 primary win.
Milei stated that he communicates with the dogs through a mystic. For example, he commented that the new Conan provides ideas on general strategy, Robert is the one who makes him "see the future and learn from mistakes", Milton is in charge of political analysis, and Murray of the economy. When asked about this by El País journalist Martín Sivak and Nicolás Lucca of Radio Rivadavia, Milei did not deny it, and said: "What I do with my spiritual life and in my house is my business. If Conan advises me on politics, it means that he is the best consultant of humanity."
Milei said he had dialogues with the likes of Rothbard and Ayn Rand. In 2015, he cited Conan as a source of inspiration for his writing. About Conan's death in 2017, Milei said that Conan had not really died (he described it as "his physical disappearance" and continued to refer to Conan in the present tense) but had gone to sit next to God to protect him, and that it was thanks to this that he had begun to have talks with God himself. According to González, Milei wrote to a friend in a chat: "I saw the resurrection of Christ three times, but I can't talk about it. They would say I'm crazy." According to various sources consulted by La Nación, Milei maintains that he and Conan have a mission that was assigned to them by God and has a mystical story with Conan. He said that he met Conan, who was a lion, as a gladiator in the Roman Colosseum about 2,000 years earlier.
|2023||President of Argentina||La Libertad Avanza||14,345,078||55.75%||1st||Elected|
|2021||National Deputy||La Libertad Avanza||1||City of Buenos Aires||313,808||17.04%||3rd||Elected|
|2017–present||Demoliendo mitos (Demolishing Myths)||Conexión Abierta|
- Milei, Javier (2014). Lecturas de Economía en tiempos de Kirchnerismo [Economic Readings in Times of Kirchnerism] (in Spanish). Grupo Unión. ISBN 978-987-3773-00-6.
- — (2014). Política Económica Contrarreloj [Economic Politics Against the Clock] (in Spanish). Ediciones Barbarroja. ISBN 978-987-45133-2-8.
- — (2015). El retorno al sendero de la decadencia Argentina [The Return to the Road of Argentine Decadence] (in Spanish). Grupo Unión. ISBN 978-987-3677-18-2.
- —; Giacomini, Diego (2016). Maquinita, Infleta y Devaluta [Money Printer, Inflation and Devaluation] (in Spanish). Grupo Unión. ISBN 978-987-3677-44-1.
- — (2017). Otra vez sopa: maquinita, infleta y devaluta: ensayos de economía monetaria para el caso argentino [Soup Again: Money Printer, Inflation, and Devaluation. Monetary Economy Essays for the Argentine Case] (in Spanish). Ediciones B, Grupo Zeta. ISBN 978-987-627-814-0.
- — (2018). Desenmascarando la mentira Keynesiana. Keynes, Friedman y el triunfo de la Escuela Austriaca [Unmasking the Keynesian Lie: Keynes, Friedman, and the Triumph of the Austrian School] (in Spanish). Grupo Unión. ISBN 978-84-7209-727-8.
- —; Giacomini, Diego (2019). Libertad, libertad, libertad [Liberty, Liberty, Liberty] (in Spanish). Galerna. ISBN 978-950-556-739-3.
- — (2020). Pandenomics. La economía que viene en tiempos de megarrecesión, inflación y crisis global [Pandenomics: The Coming Economy in Times of Mega Recession, Inflation, and Global Crisis] (in Spanish). Galerna. ISBN 978-950-556-779-9.
- — (2022). El camino del libertario [The Path of the Libertarian] (in Spanish). Planeta Argentina. ISBN 978-950-49-7456-7.
- — (2023). El fin de la inflación. Eliminar el Banco Central, terminar con la estafa del impuesto inflacionario y volver a ser un país en serio [The End of Inflation: Eliminate the Central Bank, End the Inflation Tax Scam, and Return to Being a Serious Country] (in Spanish). Planeta Argentina. ISBN 978-950-498-171-8.
- Milei, Javier (January 2004). "Real Exchange Rate Targeting. ¿Trilema monetario o control de capitales? La política fiscal" [Real Exchange Rate Targeting: Monetary Trilemma or Capital Control? Tax Policy]. Revista de Economía y Estadística (in Spanish). National University of Córdoba, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Institute of Economics and Finance. 42 (2): 63–87. doi:10.55444/2451.7321.2004.v42.n2.3807. S2CID 154116264.
- — (2014). "De los picapiedras a los supersónicos. Maravillas del progreso tecnológico con convergencia" [From the Flintstones to the Jetsons: Wonders of Technological Progress with Convergence]. Revista Actualidad Económica (in Spanish). National University of Córdoba, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Institute of Economics and Finance (83): 5–18.
- —; with Diego Giacomini (2017). "Ensayos monetarios para economías Abiertas. El caso argentino" [Monetary Essays for Open Economies: The Argentine Case]. Revista Actualidad Económica (in Spanish). National University of Córdoba, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Institute of Economics and Finance (91): 5–24.
- Stefanoni, Pablo; Foltran, Luiza (2023). "O que querem os libertários e por que deram um giro à extrema direita?". Políticas Culturais em Revista (in Portuguese). 15 (1): 181–218. doi:10.9771/pcr.v15i1.48454. ISSN 1983-3717. S2CID 251779215. Archived from the original on 26 August 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2023.